Diabetes mellitus type 1: symptoms, causes, treatment
The body is not able to process carbohydrates, because insulin is not enough - the hormone of the pancreas.
The hormone helps to convert glucose and other nutrients into vital energy. If insulin is not enough, there is a failure in the whole body. The patient loses activity, there is weakness, sleep is disturbed, kidneys and nervous - vascular system suffer.
Type 1 diabetes may appear at different ages, although statistics show that young people under 30 years old, children and adolescents are more likely to get sick. Decreased secretion and synthesis of insulin cells, destruction of pancreatic cells are signs of diabetes mellitus of this type.
In this case, there is excessive thirst, loss of muscle mass and weight, increased appetite or vice versa its absence. Determine the fact of the disease can be using blood tests for glucose.
Causes of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Why does type 1 diabetes develop, and what is it? The disease occurs for a number of reasons, one of which is heredity. To provoke diabetes mellitus type 1 can negative factors, launching the mechanism of pathological response of the immune system. As a result, pancreatic cells that are capable of producing insulin are destroyed.
Insufficient amount of insulin leads to the fact that the body can not completely utilize carbohydrates, and the body tries to make up for lack of energy by processing fats. This leads to the appearance of toxic substances that affect the brain. That's why it's important to monitor the body's state and glucose content in the blood daily.
Risk factors for the disease:
- is a sedentary lifestyle;
- improper nutrition;
- autoimmune diseases;
Obesity can occur, as a result - diabetes mellitus. And maybe vice versa, diabetes is the primary cause, and obesity is due to it.
Symptoms of type 1 diabetes
If the patient has weakness, irritability, fatigue, nausea, increased thirst and frequent urination, these are the first symptoms of type 1 diabetes.
Sometimes patients quickly lose weight, or on the contrary gain extra pounds.
Forms of the disease:
- primary( essential, genetic);
- secondary( pituitary, thyroid, steroid);
- diabetes of pregnant women.
Owing to the high content of glucose in the blood, the vessels of the eyes and kidneys are damaged. Therefore, people suffering from type 1 diabetes mellitus lose their visual acuity, often become blind. The kidneys are damaged, and kidney failure develops. Often patients complain of pain or numbness in the limbs. This is due to the fact that blood circulation is disturbed and nerves are affected.
If there is a circulatory disturbance in the feet, there is a risk of amputation of the extremities. Type 1 diabetes mellitus is accompanied by high cholesterol in the blood, which explains the occurrence of myocardial infarction or stroke in patients with myocardial infarction.
In men with diabetes, impotence may develop, as blood and nerve vessels collapse. As a result of the disease, obesity, pancreatitis, dermatopathy, nephropathy, encephalopathy often develop. A complicated complication is considered to be a hypoklikemic coma.
See also, the symptoms of type 2 diabetes.
Treatment of type 1 diabetes
Patients with this disease should determine the blood glucose level daily using elementary devices at home. The doctor may appoint, if necessary, to examine urine for sugar content. If the glucose level is increased, then insulin injections are needed to treat type 1 diabetes. This hormone harmonizes the metabolism and helps the body to utilize carbohydrates.
In the absence of adequate treatment for type 1 diabetes, serious complications arise, which in rare cases lead to death. Sometimes a patient needs hospitalization to establish the difficulty of the condition and learn the skills of glucose control and treatment.
What can I advise patients with type 1 diabetes
First of all, it is necessary to constantly adjust the level of glucose and, if necessary, receive injections, and also:
- nutrition should be balanced;
- include in the diet vegetable and low-calorie foods;
- to go in for sports.
- to walk in the fresh air.
The doctor selects individually the insulin preparation, taking into account the possibility of producing antibodies to the drug. The medicine is administered before meals to five times a day. The action of the active ingredient is prolonged due to protein protamine and zinc suspension.
A lot of drugs are produced from different manufacturers, and they differ in terms of duration. Types of drugs:
- ultra-fast insulin, similar to natural insulin;
- short-acting insulin;
- Intermediate intermediate insulin( medium duration);
- insulin( Monodar-Ultralong) long-acting;
- combined medicines.
In order to strengthen the muscular, cardiovascular and vascular system, exercise should be performed. The general strengthening of the body can help prevent the disease or alleviate the condition of the patient.
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