What are the complications of diabetes and how to deal with them?
Now in the modern world, one of the most common diseases is diabetes mellitus. There are two types of diabetes mellitus - the first and second type. In different ethnic groups and countries the chance to get sick is different, so much depends on the age. Scientists found that among people over 65 years of age, the percentage of sick 20%, when, as in adults up to 65 years old, he keeps at around 10%.Not everyone knows the complications of diabetes. This is exactly what our article will be about.
If a complication of type 1 diabetes is detected early, treatment can be stopped, and in some cases, the disease can be reversed. Progressive in most cases leads to disability or death. In the beginning, let's determine what are the complications of type 1 diabetes( called insulin dependent, because of the need for insulin):
- Diabetic retinopathy leads to loss of vision or the development of various diseases, such as cataracts or glaucoma.
- Because of diabetic nephropathy, kidney failure occurs.
- Polyneuropathy is a disorder and a change in the psyche, a change in mood, depression. Paresis, pain in the nerve trunks. Symptoms of intoxication of the Central Nervous System( CNS).
Seven major stages of diabetes mellitus type 1
- Genetic predisposition to diabetes.
- Hypothetical starting moment.
- 3. Damage the body with various diabetogenic factors and decrease immunity. In a small titre, antibodies to islet cells appear, but the body does not suffer from insulin production.
- Autoimmune insulin reduces the number of β - cells and reduces the production of insulin in the blood.
- Decreased insulin with glucose stimulation.
- Non-acceptance of glucose( NTG) and impaired fasting glucose and plasma that can be detected in a patient in a stressful situation. Including an episode of the "honeymoon" is possible. The production of insulin by the body sharply decreases, as more than 90% of β-cells died.
- Total death of β-cells leads to complete cessation of insulin production.
Vascular complications and complications of diabetes on legs. Diabetic neuropathy in most cases leads to the development of various problems. Such as peripheral neuropathy( strongly affects sensitivity) in a place with diseases of the blood vessels in the lower limbs can cause diseases and problems in the feet, including the joint of Charcot.
If you develop an infectious process in the foot, then it can lead to amputation. Another thing to watch out for is diabetic arthropathy, which brings pain in the joints, "crunching", reducing the amount of synovial fluid, increasing its viscosity and limiting mobility.
Prevention of complications
It is necessary to control blood pressure, in such cases, the advantage is given to metabolically neutral and positive drugs.
Purpose of lipid-lowering therapy: various drugs from the statin group( LDL control, lowering of IHD).The combination of fenofibrate and statins in high-risk patients with macrovascular complications in the history.
It is necessary at this time to come to a specialist to avoid deterioration of the situation. You also need to follow all the doctor's instructions.
The complications of diabetes in elderly people do not differ from other age categories. But in view of the fact that diabetes is most often manifested in people after 40 years, it is necessary to adhere to proper nutrition and a healthy lifestyle. Due to improper eating or overeating of the sweet, there are problems with obesity, smoking, drinking alcohol, age characteristics, hypertension, sedentary lifestyle, chronic overeating, are also the causes of complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus. About what we now talk.
And so, complications of type 2 diabetes and. First, the defeat of the kidneys. The third part of all cases of kidney failure is due to complications of type 2 diabetes. About 20% of patients with type 2 diabetes have a complication of "Renal failure in the final stage."They need a kidney transplant or hemodialysis several times a week until the end of life. Half of patients with type 2 diabetes suffer from proteinuria( an excess of protein in the urine), within 24 hours, they lose about 300 mg and are prone to developing "Renal failure in the terminal stage" for 7-10 years and also leads to a risk of stroke incidenceand myocardial infarction.
Secondly, the defeat of the vessels of the upper and lower extremities with diabetes mellitus, while there is a risk of amputation of the limbs in patients 20 times more than in people without diabetes. To all of the above, I also want to add that the vision is affected( blindness), the nervous system suffers. This is manifested in burning in the extremities and / or partial or complete loss of sensitivity of the legs. Enough high chance of impotence.
It is worth noting that if you are sick with diabetes, you should immediately consult a doctor! After all, it's easier to work on yourself and live than to "run" your health and then reap the fruits of your inaction.