Nearsightedness: what is it? Causes and treatment.
There are different types of abnormal vision, one of which is myopia. This defect is due to the fact that the image is formed before the retina of the eye, and not on it.
As a result, objects in the distance become blurred and poorly visible. In this case, objects are clearly visible to the smallest detail. The cause of such a defect may be an enlarged eyeball, when the retina is located behind the focal plane.
Sometimes the eye system focuses the rays more strongly, and then they do not converge on the retina, but in front of it. To help short-sighted people, lenses or corrective glasses with a negative optical index are provided.
Myopia is a plus or minus? Myopia is a minus, and for correction of this ailment negative glasses are used in glasses.
Causes of myopia
Most often, such a disease is hereditary or congenital. Sometimes there is a visual defect after the transferred infectious diseases, stress, psychological or physical exertion.
There are times when myopia is cured by special exercises for the eyes or other techniques. But often short-sightedness progresses. Then the doctors prescribe a comprehensive examination of the body, including blood tests, urine, ultrasound, ECG, MRI and other studies. In the body, everything is interconnected and the deterioration of vision should have a cause, the establishment of which will help to combat the visual defect.
Often parents turn to ophthalmologists with a complaint about the high workload of children in school, hours of work at the computer. Doctors advise to adhere to the sanitary standards, namely the correct location of the desks and the light source, observance of the regime of work, rest and nutrition.
Correct posture, alternation of mental and physical labor, healthy diet will help to maintain health and good eyesight.
Degrees of myopia
Myopia has several degrees, depending on the lesion of the eye region. Weak, medium and high degree of myopia. Up to 3.0 diopters myopia is considered weak. From 3,25 to 6 diopters - the average myopia. Myopia high has different values - from 6 diopters to 30 D.
In case of high degree of myopia, glasses are needed not only for distance, but also for near. Glasses correct vision not completely: up to 75-85%, this is due to the fact that dystrophic changes occur in the membrane of the myopic eye. Correction of myopia is aimed at weakening the refractive ray so that the image remains on the retina of the eye.
How to identify the disease?
If visual acuity is dimmed into the distance, there is no opacity in the cornea, anterior chamber, lens, vitreous, then myopia is diagnosed. It is characteristic that at a distance of 15 cm the eye acutely sees any details.
The doctor determines the disease with the help of corrective glasses or subjective method. With myopia minus glasses increase visual acuity. Check for clinical and physical refraction. Physical diagnosis is carried out on an ophthalmometer, and a clinical one on a refractometer.
False myopia occurs when there is a spasm or tension of accommodation. To detect false myopia, the procedure is carried out with the help of atropine, instill the drug according to the scheme, as a result of which the tension of accommodation decreases. Most often, atropine cycloplegia is carried out in pre-school and school-age children. Determination of the nature of the disease is possible with the help of an echoophthalmograph.
Doctor diagnoses - myopia of both eyes, medium, 1 degree, isometropic, scleral, progressive or developed nearsightedness. The correct diagnosis will help to choose the appropriate treatment technique and achieve good results.
Prophylaxis and treatment of myopia
Doctors recommend to start wearing corrective glasses or contact lenses. You can experience therapies with special exercises, eye exercises with perforated glasses.
Glasses - simulators help to strengthen the eye muscles, increase visual acuity. The approach is individual, as each method of treatment helps. Be sure to take vitamin preparations while treating myopia, to lead a correct lifestyle. Bad habits only aggravate the situation.
It is best to practice restorative gymnastics, hardening, more often to be outdoors. Eat natural products - carrot juice, apricot, pumpkin, blueberry, currant, melon. Vitamin A and E help to normalize metabolism and improve vision.
Learn to calmly react to life events, a balanced state relaxes the body and adjusts it to recovery. If myopia progresses, doctors recommend a progressive treatment.
Methods of treatment
- laser correction;
- lenectomy( lens replacement);
- lens implantation;
- radial keratotomy;
- corneal plastic.
Refractive lens replacement is used at a high degree of myopia. The transparent lens is removed, and in return an artificial lens is installed.
If a natural accommodation is not lost in a person, then implantation of phakic lenses is recommended for the treatment of myopia. The natural lens is not removed, and the lens is implanted in the anterior or posterior chamber of the eye.
Radial keratotomy involves cutting on the periphery of the cornea. Folding in a new way, the incisions change the shape of the cornea and the optical force, resulting in better vision. Corneal surgery includes correction of the appearance of the cornea. The choice of a method of treating myopia depends on individual capabilities and features of the structure of the eye!
Exercises for myopia
To reduce visual function with myopia, it is recommended to perform special exercises. To find out what it is necessary to do - see the video below:
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