Tracheitis: symptoms in adults, treatment, causes
Despite the localization of inflammation, which is actually in the lower respiratory tract, the disease belongs to the group of diseases of the upper respiratory tract.
Tracheitis usually exists in two forms: chronic and acute. In most cases, this disease is combined with other pathological conditions of the human body, such as laryngitis, bronchitis, sinusitis, rhinitis.
Causes of tracheitis
The cause of acute tracheitis in adults is the effect on the body mucosa of viruses and bacteria. Most often it is a stick of influenza or pneumococcus. The inflammatory process in this case is often promoted by factors such as:
- too dry or sawy air in living areas
- unfavorable ecological situation
This happens, as a rule, in people who abuse smoking or alcohol. Also a similar phenomenon is possible in those who have a history of emphysema, or diseases of the cardiovascular system.
Another cause of tracheitis is allergy. In people prone to allergic reactions to dust, pollen, animal hair, and various chemicals, the trachea often reacts with swelling.
Symptoms of tracheitis
As a rule, the first symptom of acute tracheitis is a rise in temperature.
In adults, it usually keeps low, and in children it rises to 39 degrees and above. To an increased temperature, weakness and headache may join.
The most striking feature of developing tracheitis is the presence of a cough. With tracheitis, cough is dry, at night and in the morning it has the property of intensifying.
Also, seizures overtake the patient with a deep breath, laughter or crying. During the cough sputum is excreted, the person feels pain in the region of the pharynx and sternum, it becomes difficult for him to breathe.
As the progression of acute tracheitis sputum becomes less viscous and gradually disappears. Very often there is also a runny nose, hoarseness.
Chronic tracheitis has a similar clinical picture with an acute phase of the disease, cough with this form is stronger, has a paroxysmal character. Also, during chronic tracheitis, atrophic and hypertrophic changes can occur in the tracheal mucosa. With hypertrophy, there is swelling of the mucosa and vasodilation, and with atrophy the mucous membrane begins to thin out, becomes smooth and acquires a grayish hue. Such changes increase the symptoms of chronic tracheitis and cause severe discomfort to the patient.
What is necessary for the diagnosis?
Setting the correct diagnosis for tracheitis requires compulsory full-time consultation with a therapist or an otolaryngologist.
After the doctor has examined the patient and listened to his complaints, he can also perform additional procedures and laboratory tests to confirm the diagnosis.
So, a complete examination of the trachea and larynx is carried out using a laryngoscope, and the procedure itself is called laryngoscopy. To exclude possible complications, radiography and fibrobronchoscopy are also used. Similar studies also help to differentiate tracheitis from such diseases as bronchitis, laryngitis, epiglottitis, pneumonia, true and false croup.
If a tracheitis is suspected, it is also recommended to do a general blood test, some of which will show the presence of an inflammatory process in the body( increased ESR, leukocytosis).
In addition, the doctor can take a sample of phlegm from the throat. With the help of laboratory studies, he confirms the presence or absence of specific viruses or bacteria that caused inflammation of the trachea.
Treatment of tracheitis
Treatment of tracheitis in adults is usually carried out on an outpatient basis. Since in most cases the disease is caused by viruses, there is no need to use antibiotics. The patient is prescribed antiviral therapy, as well as expectorating syrups and oral tablets.
In the case when laboratory analysis showed that the tracheitis is caused by bacteria, the patient is prescribed treatment with antibiotics: azithromycin, amoxicillin, clarithromycin. To reduce mucosal edema, in almost all cases of tracheitis, antihistamines are also recommended.
If the tracheitis is accompanied by high fever, the patient is prescribed antipyretic drugs, such as ibuprofen or paracetamol. In this case, the person is recommended also for bed rest.
As for the ration, the food should be light and soft in consistency, so as not to irritate the sore throat. Also, an abundant warm drink is recommended, which will ease the symptoms and help to sell temperatures.
In some cases, compresses, the use of mustard plasters, inhalations, and a number of physiotherapeutic procedures will be effective.
Treatment of tracheitis with folk remedies
Among the recipes of folk medicine are many effective remedies specifically designed to treat tracheitis at home. These methods are widely used in combination with conservative therapy.
- 1) A good effect with tracheitis or bronchitis is given by inhalation using potato steam. To do this, boil a small amount of potatoes, then drain it with water. Leaning over the saucepan, inhale hot wet steam. On the head, you must throw a large towel. This procedure perfectly warms the airways and contributes to a speedy recovery.
- 2) When tracheitis is recommended the reception of herbs that have an expectorant effect. To such herbs, in particular, belongs marshmallows. It greatly alleviates the symptoms of acute tracheitis. To prepare the decoction, it is not the leaves of the plant that are used, but its root. Cooked broth is consumed twice a day.
- 3) A good antibacterial agent are also broths for gargling, prepared at home. With regular use, they help to remove swelling, destroy bacteria in the mouth and throat mucosa. Infusions for rinsing are usually prepared from onion peel, marigold, chamomile, oak bark.
What can be complications?
In the standard course of the disease, the acute tracheitis usually disappears after 2 weeks.
The prognosis in chronic form is not as favorable: in some cases, the disease can last for months. The danger of tracheitis is that the infection from the trachea can spread along the respiratory tract.
The bronchi most often suffer, resulting in the development of tracheobronchitis. This complication has similar symptoms with tracheitis, but the cough in this case is painful and is difficult to tolerate. In addition, tracheobronchitis is characterized by the presence of high body temperature.
Pneumonia is a particularly dangerous complication of tracheitis. This disease requires inpatient treatment and the use of high doses of antibiotics. Typically, with tracheitis, pneumonia can develop in young children and the elderly, in whom the body's defenses are significantly reduced.
Prevention of tracheitis
Prevention of tracheitis is, first of all, in the timely prevention of seasonal cold and viral diseases.
In the autumn-winter period, people prone to this type of disease are advised to get a flu shot. It is also worth paying attention to their food, as much as possible to diversify it with useful food.
For the best effect is also advised to take complex vitamin preparations, immunomodulators, biologically active additives. In addition, it is recommended to carry out a gradual stamping of the body, regularly engage in physical education, often walk in the fresh air.
Since the cause of tracheitis may be getting on the mucosa of an infectious agent, then for the prevention of the disease you need to carefully adhere to oral hygiene. In this case, it is a question of timely access to the dentist with dental diseases, mandatory sanation of the cavity with gingivitis and stomatitis.
People who are diagnosed with chronic tracheitis, in addition to the classical treatment regimen, it will be useful for some time to change the climatic conditions. This will be a good prevention of exacerbation of the disease. It is noticed that the condition of such patients is significantly improved if a person is in a place with moist, sea air.
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