Sinus tachycardia: causes and treatment, symptoms
The sinus node of the heart is the controller in the heart rhythm, its main work is to generate impulses leading to a reduction in the heart muscle.
In some situations, the sinus node generates these pulses at a higher rate. The number of heartbeats in this case is from 90 to 180 beats per minute.
In medical practice, both physiological and pathological tachycardia are recognized. In absolutely healthy people, the increase in heart rate appears with stress, physical exertion, after prolonged excitement.
Concerning congenital or acquired tachycardia, it is common in girls and adolescents. With pharmacological sinus tachycardia, the sinus node of the heart is affected by substances such as alcohol, nicotine, caffeine, as well as hormones norepinephrine, adrenaline. Sinus tachycardia of a pathological nature is both adequate and inadequate. Adequate response of the body appears with anemia, increased temperature, increased blood pressure, thyrotoxicosis.
When tachycardia is inadequate, a steady increase in the heart rate of more than 95-100 per minute appears in a calm state for three or more months. Doctors say that as a result, heart rate increases because of the primary defeat of the automism of pacemaker cells in the sinus node. With inadequate sinus tachycardia, patients complain of increased heart rate, prolonged weakness, shortness of breath, dizziness. During the ECG study, in addition to rapid contractions, no other abnormalities are observed.
Symptoms of sinus tachycardia
With sinus tachycardia, the following symptoms are present:
- , heart palpitations are felt, the heart "trembles" in the chest.
- with a minor load, there is a feeling of restraint, as well as shortness of breath.
- makes you dizzy, you have a weakness. With prolonged dizziness, loss of consciousness is possible.
- with sinus tachycardia, which develops along with coronary heart disease, there is pain in the chest.
- decreases efficiency, there is weakness.
- physical work and exercise are worse, especially with constant tachycardia.
It is also recommended during treatment and diagnosis to avoid stressful situations, physical and emotional overload. Quite often people do not even guess about the presence of tachycardia. A slight increase in the number of heartbeats can be detected during the counting of your heart rate.
If in a normal relaxed state your pulse exceeds 100 beats per minute, then you can talk about tachycardia. But to find out its causes will need an ECG study.
Causes of sinus tachycardia
The disease appears mainly due to the quality of the body's reaction to the conditions of the internal environment of the body.
What causes tachycardia?
- effects of alcohol, nicotine and other poisons.
- excess thyroid hormones.
- infection in the body.
- panic attacks, neuroses, depression and other neurological diseases.
2) Diseases of the blood and respiratory organs. If the tissues suffer from "oxygen starvation," the heart rate increases. The heart begins to work hard also with anemia and constant blood loss.
3) Diseases of the cardiovascular system also provoke a sinus tachycardia. These include: various vices, myocarditis or inflammation of the heart, ischemic disease, cardiomyopathy. During these illnesses, patients notice deterioration of the contractile function of the heart, the release of blood from it. For normal maintenance of necessary volume of blood the heart increases frequency of the work.
4) With hypoxemia, increased acidity of the body, a decrease in oxygen in the blood also increases the heart rate.
5) During pregnancy, heart palpitations are normal. At the woman during this period the load on an organism increases, because of what such a tachycardia is considered admissible.
See also, symptoms of sinus arrhythmia.
Diagnosis of sinus tachycardia
With prolonged tachycardia, the doctor carefully examines the patient. The patient's living and working conditions are taken into account, whether he is in contact with harmful chemicals, whether he takes alcohol or drugs. Also important are the medications taken by the patient.
A physical examination is carried out, the skin covers, the patient's mucosa are analyzed, whether there are no rales in his lungs, or in the heart of noises. Further, a general blood test is made, which allows to determine the level of hemoglobin, increase of leukocytes.
Biochemical blood test will eliminate diabetes, kidney disease. To identify possible inflammation in the urinary system, a urine test is given. It is also important to analyze the level of thyroid hormones in the blood.
In addition, without fail the patient undergoes ECG examination. If necessary, Holter daily monitoring is prescribed. Echocardiography can reveal structural changes in the heart muscle. Consultation with a neurologist and an otolaryngologist is also recommended.
Treatment of sinus tachycardia
Treatment of this type of tachycardia is aimed primarily at eliminating the main cause of the disease. With increased thyroid function, thyreostatics are used.
If there is a major illness - the heart, blood, kidneys, conduct a specific treatment. With broncho-pulmonary diseases treatment is carried out by oxygen therapy.
It is recommended to adjust the normal duration of sleep. The food should be small portions 5 times a day, so as not to overload the gastrointestinal tract. From strongly spicy, sour, hot food should be discarded, as well as from bad habits, including the use of coffee.
If the cause of tachycardia is the abolition of any medication, it is again used, and then canceled.
Weak nervous system with tachycardia is treated with autogenic training and self-hypnosis. After consulting a therapist, the patient can identify what is bothering him. When there is harmony in the soul, many patients undergo this kind of tachycardia.
If the sinus tachycardia is too troubling for the patient, they are not well tolerated, the following drugs are used, which should be prescribed exclusively by the cardiologist:
- tinctures of motherwort, hawthorn, valerian.
- beta blockers.
- inhibitors of sinus node channels.
- calcium antagonists.
Also read the symptoms and treatment of paroxysmal tachycardia.
Prevention of the disease consists in the prevention of the underlying disease that provoked an increase in heart rate. In any case, patients with tachycardia are recommended to sleep 8 hours, eat right, lead a healthy lifestyle.
The diet should consist of a fairly large amount of fiber, you should avoid drinking alcohol, do not overeat, eat less and eat fatty and fatty foods.
It is recommended to quit smoking. In addition, you should monitor body weight, constantly exercise( minimum 3 times a week for half an hour).Swimming, massage, changing places of residence, traveling also help to relieve stress and normalize the nervous system.
It is necessary to refuse excessive physical and emotional loads, avoid conflict situations and long "pondering" problems. Sometimes, with vegetative-vascular dystonia and a weak nervous system, psychotherapy, normalization of sleep and rest, is enough. If you have a quickly excitable nervous system, use the affirmations of Louise Hay, allowing you to harmonize the state of mind and body.
Observing all the necessary recommendations, you will gradually get rid of such an unpleasant disease!
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