Diagnosis of kidney disease: the essence of its organization and ways to identify pathologies

  • Diagnosis of kidney disease: the essence of its organization and ways to identify pathologies

    Diagnosis of renal diseases

    carried technician who initially produces special recognition syndromes based on the detection of such abnormalities as proteinuria, azotemia, increased blood pressure, edema, pathological components in urine, electrolyte disorders, infection and urine volume change.


    patient survey In a survey of the patient and the establishment of the principal complaints of professional issues during formulation should start from the common data semiotic oscillations in the kidney, but also seek to obtain a more complete picture of the disease from the patient, a complete description of each feature, which can be subjected to introspection. These signs include:

    1. Urinary disorders, as well as changes in the composition of urine.
    2. Puffiness, formation and character of the edema.
    3. Pain of the head, heart pain, kidney and the nature of these pains.
    4. Dyspeptic manifestations.
    5. Disturbance of the visual organs. In

    history must specify the possible connection pathology encountered with previous lesions organism or concomitant diseases and circumstances, e.g., angina, scarlet fever, pregnancy, hypothermia in kidney inflammation, constipation during inflammation pelvis. Information on previously transmitted diseases, such as acute nephritis, tuberculosis, syphilis, lead poisoning or mercury poisoning, is also indicated.

    Conducting a medical examination of a patient

    A doctor, when examining a patient with renal pathology, usually reveals renal puffiness, pallor of the skin on the entire body and especially on the face. With a strong swelling, the face can become shapeless and it is almost impossible to recognize a person, with a small puffiness, the face is slightly puffy. The first manifestations of puffiness development are bags under the eyes.

    When examining the area of ​​the organ, the doctor reveals protrusions due to the formation of kidney tumors. When protrusion is triggered by a build-up of purulent mass, it is accompanied by swelling and redness of the skin in the appropriate place. If there is severe pain in the kidney region, then the patients take a forced posture - they bend the trunk in one direction and press the leg corresponding to the affected side - this is how to achieve relaxation of muscles and easing of pain.

    This is important!

    Inspection of the area of ​​the bladder is carried out in a situation where the organ is very strongly stretched by a large volume of urine, at which a noticeable increase in the lower abdomen occurs.

    Diagnosis by palpation

    Palpation is considered a rather important method of diagnostic examination of patients with renal pathologies. In the standing position, due to the severity and strong pressure on the buds of the diaphragm downward, they become accessible to the sensation.

    Despite this detailed palpation in this position remains difficult, because the abdominal press in this position can not remain relaxed enough compared to the lying position. In this regard, palpation of the organ in the patient in a lying position remains the preferred method of diagnosis.

    X-ray diagnostics of pathologies

    Normal kidneys do not differentiate during fluoroscopy. On the X-ray part of the organ can produce irregularly shaped shade

    possibility of obtaining organs contours image correlates with the presence in their circle of fat capsules, which in turn is less than absorb X-rays, unlike the dense tissues of the kidney. For this reason, in children, due to poor development of the fatty capsule of the kidneys, it is only in rare cases that a shadow is established from the organs.

    This is important!

    It is difficult for a doctor to determine the size and location of organs using a conventional radiograph. The best results are provided by the radiograph of two organs at once on the same film. It is easier to establish the incommensurability of the magnitude of the two kidneys with each other and the disruption of their location. Even more accurate data provides such diagnostics of kidney diseases as pyelography.

    Blood pressure and the process of cystoscopy and catheterization of the ureters

    Measurement of blood pressure indicators provides an opportunity to establish the presence and track changes in the most important sign of kidney damage - this is hypertension. Cystoscopy for the diagnosis of lesions is performed with the help of special instruments of cystoscopes. It helps to examine the mucous surfaces of the bladder, the outlet holes in the ureters, monitor the excretion of urine, install special catheters in the ureter to obtain urine separately from each organ.

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