Parotitis: photos, symptoms in children and adults, treatment
Mar 05, 2018
The disease is also often called epidemic parotitis, mumps, mumps. Inflammation of the parotid gland is characteristic for this disease.
The inflammatory process is manifested by pain syndrome and other symptoms. Parotitis is dangerous due to its complications, therefore, timely treatment and prevention of this disease are of great importance.
Causes and pathogenesis of
How does parotitis develop and what is it? Paramixovirus, the causative agent of mumps, is an RNA-genomic virus and belongs to the family Paramyxoviridae. The ingestion of this type of virus into the human body provokes a number of pathological processes, while for other mammals it is not dangerous.
Paramyxovirus has a fairly high level of viability. It is proved that, under favorable conditions, it can remain active for almost a year. The virus is sensitive to disinfectants, ultraviolet rays, high temperature.
In adults and children, paramyxovirus is found in saliva, blood, urine, and it can be found in breast milk, cerebrospinal fluid, and the brain.
Infection usually passes through the airborne pathway. The sick person becomes infectious about the second day after the virus is activated. After a week of quarantine, you can no longer adhere to it.
When a paramyxovirus enters the human body, the parotid gland is damaged. It swells and, accordingly, increases in size. There is obturation of tubules, infiltration of connective tissue, in rare cases - hemorrhage. With complicated forms, pathological processes can develop in other organs.
Read also, symptoms and treatment of measles.
Symptoms of mumps
In adults and children, the first symptoms of mumps appear about 10 days after infection.
As a rule, the development of the disease is acute. The patient has a high temperature - sometimes up to 40 degrees or more. This symptom is accompanied by a headache, general weakness, a feeling of malaise.
The main sign of mumps, both in children and adults, is the increase and soreness of the parotid glands. In most cases, there is a bilateral defeat. In the area near the ear there is a swelling, which rapidly increases. The skin in this place is stretched and shiny.
Swelling of the parotid gland gives the patient pain and discomfort during swallowing saliva, eating food. As a result, appetite is significantly reduced, gastrointestinal disorders can start. In rare cases, clogging of the salivary gland can occur, which prevents normal salivation.
Parotitis has many similar symptoms with other diseases, so this disease needs proper differential diagnosis. In particular, the ailment should be distinguished from purulent inflammation of the parotid glands, infectious mononucleosis, diphtheria.
For the diagnosis of mumps it is very important to have an internal examination of the doctor. He checks the patient on the so-called Filatova's syndrome, when during the pressure on the zone, which is just behind the earlobe, there are strong painful sensations. Also, with this disease, Murs syndrome is diagnosed - edema and reddening of the mucous membrane around the opening of the stenocarpal duct.
Confirm the diagnosis with laboratory tests. The most optimal way to date is the immunofluorescent method, which allows the rapid detection of the presence of the virus in the blood, urine, or other natural body fluids.
See also, symptoms of rubella.
Treatment of mumps
Treatment of uncomplicated forms of mumps in children and adults is conducted at home. It is necessary to adhere to quarantine.
Despite the fact that specific therapy, as for most viral diseases, in this case does not exist, therapeutic measures are mandatory. Otherwise, serious complications may develop.
When parotitis, in the first place, recommended bed rest. If the patient has a fever and fever, then he is given antipyretics. Also shown is the use of broad-spectrum antiviral drugs and immunomodulators. The oral cavity is recommended to be sanitized with antiseptic rinsing solutions.
You can not also eat food that irritates the esophagus: citrus, dishes with spicy condiments. At the same time, the diet should be maximally enriched with vitamin and nutritional products, which will accelerate recovery.
It is important to keep the patient warm, avoid hypothermia. On the head of the patient is to wear a feather shawl or hat. It is also recommended to use dry warm compresses, which are applied to the swollen areas.
The danger of the disease for a person is that it can give quite serious complications to different organs and systems of the human body.
In most cases, the genitourinary system is affected, especially in children.
In boys, complicated parotitis can provoke an orchitis - an inflammation of the testicles. In this case, there is a bright clinical picture - the temperature rises, the testicles become painful, the color of the skin of the affected organ changes.
Girls have ovarian problems in such cases, however, it is difficult to detect such a complication, since the symptomatology is not so well expressed in this case. Because of such complications, the child may remain sterile in the future.
Also in some cases, signs of encephalomyelitis or encephalitis may join: impaired consciousness, paresis of the facial nerve, violation of natural reflexes. Also, among the widespread complications of mumps, acute pancreatitis, various kinds of arthritis, hearing damage down to total deafness, nephritis, myocarditis, meningitis. Most of these diseases require urgent hospitalization and inpatient treatment.
Read also, inoculation: measles, rubella, mumps: reaction, complications, when to do.
Since parotitis is easily transmitted from person to person, it is very important not to allow an epidemic situation. To prevent it, the patient should be isolated as much as possible from the surrounding people. Approximately after the expiration of a week, after the first symptoms appeared, the patient with mumps stops being a danger to the public.
An important point in the prevention of mumps is vaccination. After all, about 30% of people suffer mumps practically asymptomatically, but they continue to infect other people. According to the generally accepted vaccination schedule, children are vaccinated twice: at the age of one year and 6 years.
The mumps vaccine is included in the associated PDA vaccine, which also prevents diseases such as measles and rubella.
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