SARS: symptoms and treatment in adults, prevention
Mar 07, 2018
These can be viruses or bacteria. Infection occurs by airborne droplets or through personal hygiene items.
In the cold season, the probability of exacerbations of acute respiratory viral infection increases, and annually up to 60-80% of the population suffers. Teenagers and small children are more sensitive to diseases, as they do not have an immune system that is sufficiently formed.
How is ARVI transmitted?
Most often, children and adults diagnosed with ARVI had contact with influenza patients( see symptoms and treatment of influenza) or parainfluenza. It is possible to transmit adenovirus and viral infections when shaking hands, kissing, talking. If the patient sneezes, coughs, then the virus circulates in the room, and all those present at risk of contracting ARVI.
That's why the virus infection spreads so quickly in transport, metro, shopping centers, underground passages. The smallest particles of the virus emerge from sputum and saliva, spreading by airborne droplets. Often, dust particles with a virus enter the human body not immediately, but when bacteria and viruses settle on the floor, and then with dust rise into the air.
Insufficient ventilation and high humidity favor the reproduction of bacteria and viruses. Especially rapidly spread infection in the cold season. The epidemic of acute respiratory viral infection is explained by cooling and hypothermia of the body, which leads to a decrease in protective functions. Often in the autumn-spring period, there is avitaminosis, weakening of immunity, so people are prone to cold and viral diseases. Infection affects the organs of the upper respiratory tract, provoking inflammatory processes.
There is a temperature, a strong cough, which indicates the involvement of the alveoli and bronchi in the inflammatory process. With rhinovirus infection there is a strong cold and chills. SARS is easily transmitted through public objects. Therefore, if a family patient with ARVI is not protected by a special gauze mask, the whole family eventually falls ill.
Since the source of infection is saliva and mucus, it is important to carefully handle the dishes, personal belongings of the patient. When outbreaks of various respiratory infections are extremely important, wash your hands and watch for lack of contact with the face and lips in particular.
ARVI and influenza. What is the difference?
ARVI is a group of diseases caused by a viral infection. Diseases are transmitted by airborne droplets and are accompanied by an increase in temperature to 38º, weakness, chills, sweating and lacrimation. More than 80% of people fall ill with ARVI in contact with patients. It is impossible to develop immunity to infection, as it constantly mutates and adapts to new conditions. Treatment of acute respiratory infections proceeds according to the scheme: antipyretic, antiviral, antihistamines and a complex of vitamins.
Influenza is a disease from the discharge of SARS, the most insidious and difficult to treat. Sometimes on the planet there are outbreaks of epidemics and pandemics that take thousands of lives. Scientists recorded about 2000 viruses, the most common of which is pork, Spanish and bird flu. The flu differs from ARVI in that it is very contagious.
The incubation period of influenza lasts 2-3 days and the diseased, without knowing it, infects hundreds of other people. Symptoms of influenza resemble ARVI, but the flu is more severe. There are signs of intoxication, headache, nausea, vomiting.
Sometimes influenza is accompanied by hallucinations and sleep disturbances. When infected with influenza, the patient is isolated, the doctor recommends bed rest and appoints antiviral drugs and adequate symptomatic treatment. The diagnosis of influenza is confirmed by special analyzes, the viruses are calculated with the help of a serological reaction and antibodies. Such studies are quite expensive, so the diagnosis is made when the epidemic of influenza is confirmed.
Look also, the symptoms of sinusitis and sinusitis.
Symptoms of acute respiratory viral infection in adults
After a certain pathogen has entered the body, it takes time for it to actively multiply, affecting the body.
The incubation period of lasts at least two days. After that, the classic picture of symptoms of ARVI begins. After the incubation period, the defeat of the respiratory system begins, and signs of illness appear. Often, patients do not suspect that they are carriers of infection and continue to infect other people.
The first symptoms of acute respiratory viral infection in adults:
- high temperature;
- sneezing, perspiration, dryness, irritation in the throat;
- in the eyes, watery eyes;
- strong cold and cough;
- enlarged lymph nodes;
- sleep disturbance;
- voice changes if there is an infectious inflammation of the laryngeal mucosa;
- photophobia and inflammation of the conjunctival mucosa, if the virus affected the eyes;
- hallucinations are possible.
- tenderness in muscles and joints.
- chills and fever.
- very rarely - vomiting, nausea, loss of consciousness.
Each person has a disease in his own way, it all depends on the protective functions of the respiratory organs, the state of the immune system. For severe patients with diabetes mellitus, heart failure and other diseases of ARVI is a danger. Many people are able to "stand on their feet" to suffer a cold, their body copes easily with the infection, and the disease is mild.
However, most often the patient needs bed rest because he experiences severe weakness, muscle pain, dizziness. To help the patient it needs to be isolated, at high temperature give antipyretics, warm drink and call a doctor.
Read also, treatment of angina at home.
Treatment of acute respiratory infections
The cause of the disease are viruses and microorganisms. Virus infection is more common( in 90% of cases).Microorganisms infection occurs in 10% of cases and the disease proceeds in a lighter form. Accordingly, treatment of acute respiratory viral infection is prescribed depending on the diagnosis and the causative agent of the infection.
There are several types of infection: adenovirus, rhinovirus, coronavirus, metapneumovirus, respiratory syncytial, parainfluenza. Diagnosis is established by symptoms and epidemiological situation. If a certain type of influenza epidemic has been announced and the first patients have been tested, it is likely that the rest of the population is infected with the same virus.
Therefore, the diagnosis is ascertained without costly research. Treatment of ARVI necessarily includes antiviral therapy, analgesics, antibacterial drugs. When the temperature rises above 38º, it is recommended to use antipyretic drugs.
If the temperature does not rise above 38º, many doctors advise not to rush with taking medications that lower body temperature, so that the body can cope with the infection itself. The patient should be placed in an isolated room and all members of the family should wear gauze bandages.
It is compulsory to conduct daily wet cleaning with antiseptic, to ventilate the room, to wash dishes with boiling water, because the infection is transmitted through saliva and mucus.
- 1) Anti-inflammatory non-steroid preparations such as paracetamol, ibuprofen, diclofenac.
- 2) Antihistamines with sensitivity to allergens;
- 3) Vasodilating nasal drops;
- 4) Drugs with sore throat;
- 5) Preparations for cough.
If as a result of acute respiratory infections the bronchi are affected, then antibacterial therapy is performed, antibiotics and phytoncides are prescribed. Although if there is only a viral infection, antibiotics are not prescribed, since they have no effect on viruses. Complications of SARS can be bronchitis, laryngitis, pharyngitis, pneumonia. Depending on the patient's condition, appropriate therapy is carried out.
Read also how to treat bronchitis at home.
How to treat SARS with folk remedies
Traditional medicine offers many tools that effectively help to cope with influenza and SARS at home. These natural remedies include onions and garlic.
In the room where the patient is, you can put a container with grated garlic or onions. Phytoncides, which are part of these vegetables, actively counteract viruses and bacteria. Well help inhalation over the solution of boiled water with the addition of grated cloves of garlic. Also for inhalations use eucalyptus, fir oil, extract from pine needles.
If on a background of ARVI the bronchitis proceeds, it is possible to apply broth from petals of a mother - stepmother, a ledum, a turn, a root of licorice and an alteum. Such plants dilute mucus and help to clear their throat. Against the background of parainfluenza most often occurs laryngitis. Inflammation of the larynx can be treated with rinses from the decoction of marigold, chamomile, eucalyptus.
Adenovirus infection is accompanied by pharyngitis, inflammation of the pharynx is also treated with rinses and inhalations over essential oils. For symptomatic treatment, make compresses on the forehead from a solution of vinegar and water( in a ratio of 1/2), they help reduce the temperature. With a strong cough and cold, it is recommended to use hot foot basins with the addition of dry mustard.
An effective method for colds are inhalations over boiled potatoes. Compresses from potatoes "in uniforms" help to get rid of a cough. Prepare it as follows. Hot gum boiled potatoes are placed on the cheesecloth, kneaded, sprinkled with alcohol and put on the patient's chest. Top covered with a plastic wrap and a towel. This compress can be kept for up to 30-50 minutes.
When an ARVI disease is recommended to consume up to 2 liters of warm drink: milk, tea with raspberries, cranberry juice, broth of wild rose, mineral water. If the patient coughs for a long time, you can give badger fat in a warm form, aloe with honey, melted cocoa butter.
If a patient does not go to the doctor on time or does not follow a bed rest, complications of ARVI occur sometimes. These include pneumonia, otitis media, purulent inflammation in the sinuses of the nose, myocarditis( inflammation of the heart muscle), or inflammation of the brain.
On the background of acute respiratory infections, chronic diseases worsen. Often the colds that are transmitted give complications to the kidneys, pyelonephritis develops. Disease of acute respiratory infections leads to inflammatory processes in the bronchi, pharynx, larynx. Bronchitis is important to treat at an early stage, otherwise the chronic form of bronchitis, cardiac and respiratory failure can develop.
Prevention of acute respiratory infections
Prevention measures include hardening, exercising, walking outdoors, taking foods rich in minerals and vitamins. These measures are aimed at increasing the protective functions of a person, strengthening immunity and strengthening the body.
During the epidemic, it is recommended to lubricate the nose with oxolin ointment with an antiviral effect. To eat garlic, onions, cloves, these foods are saturated with phytoncides and help to resist colds.
During an epidemic of influenza or ARVI, it is better to refrain from traveling in public transport, where a large crowd of people and circulating the virus. Own room should be ventilated more often in order to reduce the concentration of bacteria and viruses, observe hygiene rules, and conduct wet cleaning daily.
Cleanliness and correct way of life, philosophical attitude to nature and people - the guarantee of good health!
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