Whooping cough: symptoms in children, treatment, photo
Mar 05, 2018
This disease is contagious and is characterized by a sharp current.
A characteristic feature of whooping cough is a strong inflammation and a specific symptomatology, which is manifested by attacks of an angry cough.
The presence of whooping cough in a person requires mandatory therapy, including, and using antibiotics, as some of its complicated forms can result in death.
Causes of pertussis in children
The source of infection in whooping cough is, as a rule, a sick person. In view of the fact that the path of transmission of the bacteria is airborne, the infection spreads very quickly, especially in the children's team. The probability of infection is almost 100%, since most people are very susceptible to the pathogen.
It should be noted that sick people even get vaccinated. They often have a disease with mild symptoms, but in any case they remain dangerous for those who have not resorted to the use of the vaccine.
The causative agent of pertussis is a special kind of bacterium - the so-called Borde-Zhang wand, which exists in two varieties: Bordetella parapertussis and Bordetella pertussis.
The structure of this wand is villous, so that it easily clings to the villi with which the inner layers of the respiratory tract are lined. The Borde-Gangu wand affects mainly bronchi and trachea, is transferred from a sick person to a healthy one in mucus secretions from the nasopharynx and sputum.
In this case, it practically can not exist outside the human body and quickly dies, especially under the influence of high temperature or sunlight.
Symptoms of whooping cough in children
In children and adults, the disease in the vast majority of cases develops gradually. Everything begins with the incubation period, when a person is already becoming infectious, but the first symptoms of whooping cough are still absent. It lasts about 10 days, after which three periods of direct development of the disease itself are observed.
The first period of the disease with whooping cough is called catarrhal. It lasts from 1 to 2 weeks.
This period is characterized by signs of a common cold: subfebrile temperature, mild dry cough, runny nose. Over time, cough significantly increases, there are seizures, especially at night.
The number of such seizures or, in other words, paroxysms, can reach 50 times a day. At the same time during coughing a rather large amount of viscous mucous sputum is allocated. Often after an attack, patients experience vomiting caused by severe spasms.
The patient feels severe weakness and fatigue, especially night coughing attacks are difficult. Paroxysmal stage lasts a long time - up to 3 months. In her early cough is very strong, but over time it weakens.
The last stage of whooping cough is the recovery period. It is fixed at a time when the disease is on the decline, and the frequency and strength of attacks decreases.
Analyzes and diagnostics
Diagnosis of whooping cough in children is carried out on the basis of laboratory tests and the presence of the corresponding symptomatology. Most doctors diagnose the disease after examining the patient.
Pertussis in the paroxysmal stage is characterized by a characteristic cough. It has a pronounced paroxysmal character, which is characterized by a series of rapid coughing tremors that continue almost uninterruptedly. For one attack of such tremors there are about 10. After a cough, when the patient has finally the opportunity to take a breath, he makes a loud whistling sound, the so-called reprise.
In patients who have an ailment in a non-standard form, it is much harder to make a correct diagnosis. Even if cough is present, it should be distinguished from similar symptoms in viral pneumonia, infectious mononucleosis, neoplasms of the upper respiratory tract.
That is why the diagnosis of the disease includes the mandatory sampling of phlegm from the throat for analysis of the presence of a Borde-Zhang wand.
Treatment of pertussis
In most cases, whooping cough is treated as an outpatient. The exception is infants under 4 months, as well as patients with complicated variants or severe course of the disease.
The most effective effect in the treatment of pertussis has antibiotic therapy. However, it makes sense to apply only in cases where the disease is in the first stage.
As generally used antibiotics such as erythromycin, levomitsitin, azithromycin or tetracycline.
For the removal of the edema of the respiratory tract with whooping cough prescribed antihistamines. Also shown is the use of sedatives that will reduce the increased nervousness, often accompanying the disease. In severe seizures, anticonvulsant drugs may be used. If there is frequent vomiting, then there is a sense in intravenous fluid administration.
But expectorants and antitussives other similar drugs in whooping cough have no effect, so they are not recommended.
the treatment of whooping cough is often very important in the fresh air, so patients are encouraged to walk much and as often as possible ventilate the room. Doctors also advise their patients to avoid factors that can cause a new coughing attack. In this case, we mean increased physical activity, overeating, negative emotions and experiences. Complications of pertussis
Despite the fact that in most cases of whooping cough after a desired period of time ends in complete recovery, sometimes it can cause serious complications.
One of such dangerous complications is bronchopneumonia, especially at the risk of getting sick by children in infancy. It is in infants that pneumonia most often causes death. The insidiousness of bronchopneumonia lies in the fact that it is often diagnosed at a time when pertussis symptoms are on the decline.
Less common complications include the following diseases:
- false croup
- umbilical or inguinal hernia
- rectal prolapse
forecast and pertussis
prevention in modern medicine prognosis of whooping cough in the majority of cases favorable. This disease is of great danger except for the elderly and infants. The latter need constant monitoring, as they often have a delay in breathing during attacks.
Congenital immunity to a disease that is transmitted with maternal antibodies, unfortunately, does not exist. That is why for today an important point in the prevention of pertussis is the use of a special anti-pertussis vaccine. Most often in the post-Soviet space, Infrax and DTP vaccines are used.
Vaccinate small children from 3 months to 3 years. In 80% of cases, the vaccine protects against infection, but some people still become infected, though, it should be noted, the disease is much easier in such circumstances.
It is also very important for the prevention of whooping cough is the conduct of epidemiological control in cases of confirmation of diagnosis. The patient should be isolated as much as possible from others, and everyone who contacted him, check for the presence of pertussis wand.
In case of an epidemic, it is also possible to carry out so-called emergency prevention. People who were in contact with sick whooping cough, in this situation, once introduced a special kind of immunoglobulin.
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