• Blepharitis: photos, symptoms, treatment, causes

    One of the varieties of various inflammatory eye diseases is blepharitis. It is accompanied by inflammatory processes along the edges of the eyelid.

    Different populations are affected, regardless of gender or race. It is difficult to cure and can last for many years. Is manifested:

    • exfoliation of the skin surface and the appearance of plaque on the skin of the eyelids;
    • by gluing eyelashes with yellowish or greenish discharge;
    • with increased lacrimation;
    • formation of flaky scales in the head and eyebrows.
    Pathogenesis of pathology consists of the development of numerous factors. Staphylococcal, fungal or tick-borne infections and microbial colonies on the surface of the eyelid. The products of their vital activity - enzymes and toxins cause destruction of tissues. Chronic meibomitis and seborrheic dermatitis aggravate this process.

    Pathology can provoke many causes, but the main causative agent is the ciliate mite, which lives on the skin and enters the skin composition of the microflora - the acorn stamina( Demodex folliculorum).
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    The development of the disease and its progression leads to multiple pathologies:

    • inflammation and loss of optical transparency of the vitreous of the eye;
    • the formation of induced astigmatism;
    • corneal perforation.

    Classification of

    How does blepharitis develop, and what is it? From the anatomical point of view and clinical manifestations, the disease is divided into anterior blepharitis and posterior, infectious and non-infectious.

    The variant of anterior blepharitis can be considered as a consequence of staphylococcal infection, including the appearance of ulcerative nature, the consequence of seborrheic infection is scaly blepharitis, and the disease due to tick infection is demodectic. It is characteristic of the lesion of the ciliary margin only. It differs by structural changes in the eyelashes and sebaceous glands located under them.

    Staphylococcal infection causes at the base of the eyelashes, in the form of a ring, the elevation of the upper layer of the epidermis. The formation around the base of the eyelashes of the "sleeve", in the form of a tube, is the result of the infection of the demodex mite. Characteristic of the sores and fibrin crust at the base of the eyelashes. It is possible to link corneal diseases, namely with staphylococcal infection with anterior blepharitis.

    Seborrheic infection is characterized by manifestations of an increased amount of salivary glands, causes the epidermis to slough off the eyelids, promotes the formation of an eczema and pustular ulcers, which explains the definition of ulcerative blepharitis. Ulcerous feature of the disease, one of the main causes of complications is the deformation of the ciliary series, including the inversion and twisting of the eyelids, which contribute to profuse lacrimation.

    The manifestation of posterior blepharitis is benign papillomatous formations on the eyelids caused by proliferative inflammation - meibomitis, as a result of occlusion of the excretory ducts and violation of secretion outflow from the sebaceous glands.

    The stagnant process turns the secret into food for bacteria and promotes their penetration into the deep tissue layer, causing extensive inflammation. Such processes cause damage to the conjunctiva and the cornea of ​​the eye, promote the development of keratitis, rosacea, recurrent chaliazion, trichiasis and "dry eye syndrome".

    Symptoms of blepharitis

    In the course of numerous studies and observations, it was found that the symptoms of blepharitis in patients are marked against a background of various diseases:

    • chronic and inflammatory;
    • diseases of a hormonal and psychological nature;
    • on the background of cardiac pathologies.
    But twice as often in patients with blepharitis, the analyzes showed the presence of ulcerative colitis, haljazion, inflammation of the sebaceous glands, rosacea, pterygium and seborrheic dermatitis.

    The following causes cause blepharitis:

    1. 1) The defeat of the mite - demodex( see demodecosis) causes the formation of rhinophyma - hyperplasia of the skin in the form of growths on the nose and telangiectasia - multiple vascular nets and asterisks on the face. The manifestation of erythema, characteristic of a strong reddening of the skin. Rashes of pimples.
    2. 2) At visual inspection the presence of erythema of eyelids is noted, on their edges the crust and jazvochki is formed. This causes sticking, falling out, discoloration and improper growth of the eyelashes.
    3. 3) Meybomitis causes swelling, the formation of telangiectasia, which leads to the formation of an irregular shape of the eyelid.
    4. 4) Hyperemia, swelling, friability and bleeding of the conjunctiva are characteristic.
    5. 5) At the intersection of the lower and upper edge of the eyelids, fluke-ulcerous keratitis, erosion of the epithelium and sores are detected.
    The main complaints of patients with blepharitis include the presence of various symptoms of pronounced:

    • abundant lacrimation;
    • sensation of burning and foreign body in the eye;
    • formation in the corners of the eyes of the purulent crust at the roots of the eyelashes;
    • pain and reddening of the eyes and eyelids;
    • is a manifestation of photophobia and visual impairment.

    Causes of blepharitis

    Many reasons serve as the culprits of the disease. The most likely of these are bacteria microbes and viruses:

    • bacillus bacterium Pfeifer;
    • Staphylococcal and streptococcal bacteria;
    • herpesvirus and herpes zoster;
    • virus of molluscum contagiosum and fungal infections;
    • lice and mites.
    In addition to the listed for likely reasons manifestations of pathology include many skin systemic diseases:

    • seborrheic, staphylococcal and simple herpes dermatitis;
    • fthiroid and demodex are the result of the presence of lice and mites on the eyelid;
    • dermatitis of contact and allergic nature - a consequence of chemical and medicinal substances - fumes, smog and smoke.
    • agranulocytosis - inflammation of the salivary and lacrimal glands.

    Treatment of blepharitis

    In choosing a method of treatment, the main task is to identify the cause, determine the pathogen, or have a background disease that caused blepharitis.

    A, since a number of diseases have a similar symptomatology, it is necessary to exclude them by the method of therapeutic examination.

    It should be explained to the patient that the undulating course of the treatment, due to possible complications of the disease, will not be instantaneous, and the blepharitis treatment process may take a long time. Only observing the strict instructions of the doctor, you can achieve positive results.

    Blepharitis is difficult to treat, effective use of complex treatment is considered - taking medications together with hygienic procedures.

    The medical treatment of blepharitis is aimed at the removal of inflammatory processes and the effect on the cause that led to the disease.

    1. 1) Ulcer manifestation of the pathology provides warm lotions to the eyelids in order to soften the secret and successfully purify it from the century. Then, the eye stick is accurately applied to the edges of the age of Dex-gentamicin ointment, which includes antibiotics and corticosteroid preparations.
    2. 2) With seborrhoeic blepharitis, in order to remove dandruff areas and cleanse the outlets of the eye glands, the eyelids are washed with alkaline shampoos - the usual boiled water with several drops of baby shampoo is used. At the end of the procedure, the edges of the eyelid are applied erythromycin or tetracycline ophthalmic ointment, which suppress the reproduction of microbes, normalize the metabolism and functioning of the glands.
    3. 3) In a disease caused by mites, the affected areas are washed with saline or shampoo solution, followed by the application of dexa-gentamicin ointment twice a day and mandatory lubrication overnight. In addition, antiparasitic drugs are prescribed.
    4. 4) The disease with manifestations of conjunctivitis is treated with special eye drops and laying in the conjunctiva tetracycline ointment for the night. In special, neglected cases, oral antibiotics are prescribed for a month or until symptoms disappear, at the discretion of the attending physician.
    5. 5) The use of surgical treatment is caused by the need for a complicated disease. Plots of eyelids with meibomian pathology are dissected with the aim of scraping a stagnant secretion. Plastic operations are performed in cases of scar formation, entropion( curvature), or incorrect growth of eyelashes( trichiasis).
    6. 6) In addition to drug treatment, a vitamin-mineral complex and procedures for UV, UHF and magnetotherapy are prescribed. A protein-rich diet is made, eliminating products that can cause allergies.

    Prognosis and prevention of

    Despite the fact that the disease has a protracted nature and often manifests itself relapses, with timely and systemic treatment, the prognosis is favorable. Disease of acute form, as a result of relapse, can proceed to a recurrent, sluggish chronic form. But scarring of the cornea and loss of vision does not cause.

    Supporting and strengthening the immune system, fully nourishing, keeping cleanliness and hygiene in your personal life, preventing diseases that can cause this pathology, you can prevent blepharitis, and forget about it as a terrible dream.

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