Adult bite correction: methods and features
Any intervention, a change in the existing position of the teeth and jaws must be firmly justified and strictly dosed.
Principle of Teeth Movement
A tooth is a full body of the human body. It is not thrust into the jaw, like a nail in the wall, but is retained by means of numerous elastic bands - periodontal ligaments. Therefore, the tooth does several minor movements repeatedly, during the chewing process. However, due to the elasticity of the periodontal, it returns to its original position every time.
If the pressure on the tooth is constant, then it has a lasting effect on some parts of the bone. The bone begins to dissolve and the tooth is displaced into the formed microspace. On the opposite side of the tooth, on the contrary, the periodontal ligaments stretch, stimulating the formation of bone tissue. With excessive pressure, periodontal ligament can collapse, which leads to dislocation of the tooth. With insufficient strength - the speed of movement is either too small or completely absent.
There are three types of tooth movement:
- 1) Incline. The tooth moves around a point located approximately in the center of the tooth.
- 2) Case movement. The initial and final positions of the tooth are approximately parallel, the entire tooth is uniformly displaced.
- 3) Rotation. Movement is carried out around the longitudinal axis of the tooth.
Teeth interconnection principle
However, teeth requiring orthodontic intervention to correct occlusion in adults have a significant effect on each other.
- 1) The orthodontic construct can not abstractly press on the tooth to move it. According to all laws of mechanics, a "point of support" must be created, in relation to which the displacement will be carried out. Therefore, you need to choose a stable group of teeth that will withstand the back pressure of the spring or elastic thrust.
- 2) When closing the mouth, the opposing teeth come into contact. Their mounds, located at different angles, are capable of deflecting the teeth on the opposite jaw, or on the contrary, blocking the required movement. Therefore, in a number of cases, before the correction of the occlusion in adults, it is required to separate the bite, to make it impossible for the teeth to close together. Usually this is achieved by introducing into the orthodontic design of small plastic elements imposed on the chewing surfaces of the teeth.
Changing the length of the tooth row
The dentition can often be compared with a bookshelf on which books are arranged unevenly, ugly - too tightly or crookedly. One of the reasons is the discrepancy between the length of the shelf and the total volume of the books.
There can be several solutions:
- 1) Extension of the shelf and a neat arrangement of books. If the formation of the jaws is not yet complete, the doctor makes an apparatus that stimulates the growth of bone tissue in the right direction.
- 2) Removal of books from the shelf. Unfortunately, often removing a pair of teeth is the best way to align the dentition. Most often they sacrifice their fourth teeth. Even if the incisors are in the wrong position, removing them too detrimental to the appearance of the patient.
Age features of orthodontic treatment
During the formation of temporary bite, the most important is to prevent the occurrence of pathology. Therefore, it is necessary to eliminate harmful factors in time, such as incorrectly attached frenums of the lip and tongue. It is important to fight with bad habits( sucking a finger, tongue, snacking a pencil or other object, etc.), which can lead to malocclusion.
Correction of occlusion in adults, treatment in the future is most often aimed at eliminating deterrent adverse factors and stimulating proper development. So, when the jaw is underdeveloped, the cheeks are removed by the orthodontic construction.
When the formation of the dentoalveolar system is already fully completed, the use of various plates becomes useless. A more powerful impact is required, which can ensure the use of braces.
Probably, it is in orthodontics that the greatest variety of different designs and adaptations is collected. However, whatever their number, in the basis lie all the same ancient principles - the laws of levers and the knowledge of the phase of development of the dentoalveolar system.
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