Treatment of pituitary adenoma - more effective methods
The pituitary gland is an appendage of the brain, which is divided into two lobes, the anterior and posterior. It is in them is the development of pituitary hormones: tirotropin, somatotropin, follitropin, prolactin, lyutropin, oxytocin, vasopressin and adrenocorticotropic hormone.
Adenoma and its causes
Pituitary adenoma is a benign tumor consisting of glandular tissue. Located in the anterior part of the appendage.
The causes of the disease are not fully understood, but predisposing factors are brain injuries, infectious processes of the nervous system and adverse effects on the fetus during pregnancy. Recently, suspicion is also affecting the long-term use of oral contraceptives.
Pituitary adenomas can be hormonally active, or inactive, depending on whether the hormones produced in the adenoma cells produce.
Hormonal active adenomas can be:
- prolactin secretagogues,
In size they are divided into microadenomas( up to two centimeters in diameter) and macroadenomas( over two centimeters).
Symptoms of the disease
The manifestations of the disease depend on what hormone produces the cells in its composition, from the size of the tumor and the rate of its growth.
With somatotropin-producing adenoma, acromegaly and gigantism may occur. Prolactin-secreting, most commonly found among the adenomas of the pituitary gland, grow slowly and manifest in the increase in mammary glands and the release of milk from them. But sometimes adenomas of this type produce an inferior hormone, so they do not manifest clinically.
Corticotropinoma( basophilic adenoma of the pituitary gland) enhances the production of hormones in the adrenal cortex, and manifests itself in the form of hypercorticism. Grow such tumors usually slowly. Thyrotropinomas cause tirotoksikoz, very resistant to medical and surgical treatment. Adenomas that produce sex hormones can cause impotence and gynecomastia in men, as well as menstrual irregularities and uterine bleeding in women.
Rarely, but there are malignant adenomas. With an increase of up to two centimeters, visual impairments, blindness, and abnormalities from the cranial nerves may appear. These are some disappointing consequences of the disease.
Treatment options for
Treatment of pituitary adenoma may be medicated, surgical or radiation.
When medicated, parloderm( bromocriptine) is prescribed. It was most effective in treating prolactin.
The radiosurgical method involves the introduction of radioactive substances into the adenoma, and neurosurgical treatment is necessary for visual impairment, or adenomas with complications( various hemorrhages in adenoma or cyst formation).In modern medicine, a microsurgical transsphenoidal approach is used. Operations go well, especially with small tumor sizes. Some clinics practice laser treatment.
Treatment of pituitary adenoma by the radiation method includes gamma-therapy, remote radiation therapy, as well as proton therapy, a radiosurgical method.
Is pituitary adenoma and pregnancy compatible? With this ailment, pregnancy is possible, as well as the birth of a healthy child. During pregnancy, abolish medications, and tomography and tests should be done no earlier than two months after childbirth.