Dangerous consequences of diabetes. What is dangerous such a violation and how to deal with it?
Diabetes is a condition in which blood glucose levels rise. To date, the number of patients with diabetes is more than 300 million. The problem with this disease is that half of all diabetic patients do not even suspect that they have sugar in their blood.
The trigger mechanism for the appearance of diabetes in 80% of cases is excess weight and inaccuracies in the diet, but the real plague for patients are the consequences of diabetes.
The consequences that can result from diabetes are dangerous because they cause irreversible changes in tissues and organs that lead to disability and sometimes to death of patients. Annually in the world from complications of a diabetes mellows more than 4 million person dies.
The main cause of complications is the destruction of small vessels( capillary network) and peripheral nerves. The smallest vessels are located in the retina of the eyes, in the glomeruli of the kidneys, at the feet of the lower limbs. Therefore, there is a certain terminology that indicates the localization of complications:
- Diabetic angiopathy - changes in small vessels of any part of the body.
- Diabetic nephropathy - changes in small vessels of the kidneys.
- Diabetic polyneuropathy - affection of the peripheral nervous system.
- Diabetic retinopathy - changes in the vessels in the retina of the eye.
- Diabetic foot - loss of sensitivity in the area of the feet, changes in the skin, joints and so on.
Symptoms of diabetes mellitus and the consequences are directly proportional to the severity of the disease, that is, the more pronounced the symptomatology, the faster the complications may occur. Therefore, due to the severity and course of the disease, all the effects of diabetes mellitus on acute( early) and late( chronic) complications.
What are the dangerous complications of diabetes?
Such complications arise, as a rule, due to a sharp jump in blood sugar levels and its concentration for several hours or days. To prevent or somehow prevent these complications is very difficult, since a critical condition can occur very quickly. If these complications occur, the patient should immediately be hospitalized, since delay or lack of medical care for 2-3 hours can lead to the death of the patient.
Early or acute complications include the following conditions:
- Diabetic coma - occurs as a response to a sharp increase in glucose, manifested by confusion, violation of the act of breathing, a sharp odor of acetone, lack of urine or increased urination. Can occur with all types of diabetes.
- Ketoacidosis - occurs when the accumulation of metabolic products( waste) in the blood, and is characterized by a violation of the functions of all organs and loss of consciousness. It occurs mainly with diabetes type 1 ( insulin-dependent).
- Hypoglycemic coma is a condition in which the level of sugar falls sharply. Occurs with alcohol, strong physical exertion or an overdose of sugar-reducing drugs. Can occur with all types of diabetes.
Late complications of
The cause of such complications is a prolonged( for several years) excess of blood glucose level. No, even the most expensive treatment can not give a guarantee that the consequences of type 2 diabetes will not arise if the sugar level all the time exceeds the norm of 5.5 mmol / liter.
The late complications include:
- Defects in the retina of the eye, which may cause cataracts( clouding of the lens of the eye) or complete blindness.
- Hair loss, teeth, hearing loss, inflammatory diseases of the oral cavity( periodontal disease, including).
- The defeat of the heart vessels, which leads to coronary insufficiency and angina, and also in the future to myocardial infarction.
- Fatty liver hepatosis, which occurs due to a violation of fat and carbohydrate metabolism.
- Kidney damage or nephropathy, which is a common cause of death in diabetics.
Changes in sexual function that occur in men and women. The consequences of diabetes mellitus in men are characterized by a decrease in libido, erection, as well as complete impotence. In women, this is manifested by premature miscarriages or intrauterine fetal death.
The defeat of the lower limbs( diabetic foot), which can cause ulcers, gangrene, fungal diseases. Most often diabetics lose one or two legs because of these complications.
Changes in the elasticity of vessels that become brittle and brittle. This leads to multiple consequences throughout the body, since the circulatory network is highly developed and is the source of nutrition for all systems.
Prevention of the consequences of diabetes
All complications arise only in case of decompensated cases of diabetes, when the patient breaks the diet, does not monitor the blood glucose level, does not follow the elementary rules of a healthy lifestyle, abuses bad habits, moves little. With compensated diabetes, the consequences are not as dangerous and do not occur as quickly as in the decompensated form of the disease.
In case of diabetes type 2, the effects are unpredictable and in most cases greatly complicate and worsen the quality of life, therefore, to prevent their occurrence, the following measures should be taken:
- Strictly adhere to the diet.
- Quit smoking and not drinking alcohol.
- Move more, take a walk or swim.
- Reduce excess weight.
- Strictly control the blood sugar level at least 2 times a week with a glucometer.
- Regularly carry out insulin therapy or take sugar-lowering medications.
- Continually to be observed at the doctor-endocrinologist for an estimation of a status.
The main thing that you do not need to be afraid and you need to know is that diabetes is not a death sentence, it's just a diagnosis that can be easily corrected and treated if the patient himself is aware of his condition and carefully follows the recommendations of the treating doctor. All the consequences of diabetes can be prevented if you control the sugar level within the norm.