• Gynecomastia: symptoms, causes, diagnosis, treatment

    Gynecomastia is a mammary gland disease in men that manifests itself as a one-sided or two-sided increase in the breast size of up to 10 cm.

    The cause of the disease can be hypertrophy of fatty or glandular tissue associated with hormonal imbalance, especially in athletes who take steroids. The disease is accompanied by painful sensations in the chest region, painful manifestations during palpation. In fact, gynecomastia is a benign disease, but in case of untimely treatment it can develop into a cancer of the breast or lymph nodes. The frequency of manifestations in adolescents reaches 60%, in middle-aged men - 40%, in older men - 70%.In addition, most often gynecomastia manifests as a bilateral disease of the mammary glands.

    Gynecomastia may be false or true. False gynecomastia - symptoms are less painful, the main cause is a large amount of subcutaneous fat with obesity, as well as problems with metabolism. True gynecomastia is caused by the age norm when it passes by itself, and by pathology in the body, in this case it is necessary to consult a doctor and conduct a survey.

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    Symptoms of the disease

    Depending on the age, the manifestations of the disease and its appearance give rise to several obvious symptoms:

    • The first signs of gynecomastia in newborns is a slight compaction of the mammary glands, sometimes it can be accompanied by the release of colostrum.
    • Two-sided gynecomastia - symptoms are manifested in an increase in the size of the breast from 4 to 10 cm, the weight of one breast reaches 160 g. The diameter of the nipple also increases. The size of the areola reaches 2-3 cm in circumference, in this case the pigmentation changes - the nipple becomes darker, it is extremely rare during the gynecomastia to discharge from the nipple.
    • Gynecomastia is also manifested with symptoms accompanied by unpleasant sensations in the chest, painful and supersensitive nipples. If the cause of the disease has become hyperprolactinaemia, men manifest impotence, oligospermia and lesions of the central nervous system.
    • Unilateral gynecomastia manifests itself with the same symptoms as bilateral. But in this case, the risk of developing a malignant breast tumor increases, which may require the use of surgical treatment of gynecomastia.

    How the gynecomastia

    develops This disease has clear stages of development, which have distinctive features. Knowing the stages of gynecomastia development, you can turn in time for help, which will quickly and painlessly hold treatment. For a long time to think about which doctor to go with gynecomastia, do not have to - in any clinic you need to go to the mammal cabinet, where they will conduct all the necessary tests and prescribe treatment.

    Stages of the development of the disease:

    • The developing stage or proliferating occurs in the first four months, is not accompanied by visible symptoms, except for a small increase in breast size. It is at this stage that it is important to identify the disease, because in the first months the process can be reversed without using surgical intervention, and using the recommended drugs from gynecomastia.
    • The intermediate stage lasts from four months to a year. At this time, the glandular fluid in the mammary glands begins to accumulate, which is accompanied by painful sensations.
    • Fibrous - the last stage is manifested by changes in the structure of the mammary gland tissue. The patient in place of adipose tissue is replaced by a replacement connective - the changes are included in the irreversible stage. In this case, the treatment of gynecomastia with medications is impossible, at this stage they are turning to the surgeon for the removal of the breast.

    In case of ignoring the symptoms of the disease and refusing surgery, a malignant tumor in the mammary gland region can form. In this case, in addition to the increased sizes and changes in the nipples, bloody liquid can be released. In addition, there is an increase in lymph nodes in the area of ​​the armpits, a discoloration of the skin and visible thickening of the breast.

    Methods for diagnosis of gynecomastia

    In order to avoid the development of the disease, it is necessary to undergo diagnostics in the first months, in this case the doctor will explain how to treat gynecomastia. At the beginning of the disease, it is worth turning to an endocrinologist for an examination of the body, which will conduct analyzes of the patient's hormonal state. The analysis of the blood will reveal the amount of estradiol, prolactin, creatinine, nitrogen, urea and other elements that affect the human hormonal background.

    To exclude the possibility of a testicular tumor in the case of an increased testosterone content, scrotal ultrasound is done. To exclude the possibility of cancer, a mammary biopsy is performed. To determine the type of gynecomastia, ultrasound of the mammary glands is performed.

    During the examination, a complete examination of the patient is carried out, the severity of secondary sexual characteristics, the condition of the testes and the palpation of the mammary glands are analyzed. A complete picture of the patient's health status is also important in the survey, data on the use of all kinds of medications, the presence of another disease, alcohol and drug dependence play a large role for diagnosis. Timely treatment of the first symptoms of the disease will avoid long-term treatment and possible surgical intervention. Since the percentage of gynecomastia damage is high enough at any age, it is worthwhile to closely monitor changes in the body and monitor the nutrition and use of medications and other medications.

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