• How to recognize the symptoms of type 1 diabetes and make the right treatment

    One of the most frequent endocrine diseases is diabetes. It is divided into two types according to WHO classification. These are insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent types. And if for the second type as the reasons for provocation should be allocated non-compliance with the diet, then the first type of diabetes develops for other reasons associated with violations of the incremental function of the pancreas.

    Etiological factors, pathogenesis of

    The main realizing cause for type 1 diabetes is absolute insulin deficiency. This is the state of the body, in which the islets of Langerhans do not produce enough insulin for the utilization of glucose, or do not secrete it at all. For this reason, hypoglycemia develops, which is characterized by general symptoms of type 1 diabetes. In the etiological aspect, the disruption of the secretory function of the islets of the pancreas can occur for the following reasons.

    • Acute pancreatitis and pancreatic necrosis.
    • Pancreas resection.
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    • Autoimmune lesion of the islets of the gland.
    • Oncological diseases of the pancreas.

    These reasons are basic, and therefore the etiology of type 1 diabetes is fairly simple, if you do not go into the immunological processes that occur in the autoimmune form of the disease. In all these cases, either complete cessation of insulin synthesis or partial reduction of insulin is observed.

    Pathogenetic Diabetes Scheme

    All of the above causes cause a chain of pathogenetic changes in the body. Because of a lack of insulin, there is an increase in the level of blood glucose concentration, since its utilization does not occur. The only tissue that can absorb glucose without insulin is the brain tissue. Therefore, with any type of diabetes, there are no central neurological disorders, except coma, which is the consequence of a number of metabolic disorders.

    1. The onset of the action of factors damaging the islets of the pancreas( occurs without specific symptoms).
    2. All causes of diabetes 1 type cause insulin deficiency.
    3. Increased blood glucose level.
    4. Reorganization of metabolic pathways for utilization of fats and proteins, predominance of catabolism.
    5. Systemic disorders due to ketoacidosis, sometimes manifested ketoacidotic coma.
    6. Fast and strong weight loss, despite a satisfactory diet.
    7. The stage of treatment of diabetes mellitus with monoinsulin preparations, as a consequence of an irregular intake, is a hypoglycemic coma.
    8. Development of vascular and peripheral neurological disorders( microangiopathy, macroangiopathy, neuropathy).

    Symptoms of the disease

    The main signs of type 1 diabetes are triggered by changes in the level of glucose concentration in the blood, as well as weight loss and sometimes exhaustion. In general, the symptoms of type 1 diabetes are characteristic of young people. For the elderly, type 2 diabetes is most common, that is, relative insulin deficiency.

    All the main symptoms of type 1 diabetes begin to appear after the increase in glucose level( point 3 in the above pathogenetic scheme).At this stage, there is dry mouth, provoked by an increase in the osmotic pressure of the blood. For this reason, also a strong thirst, a person can drink about 4-6 liters of liquid per day, while allocating 2-4 liters. Against the background of hyperglycemia, there is a strong fatigue and weakness, which are not accompanied by drowsiness. A person is inclined to engage in mental work instead of the physical, since the brain absorbs glucose without the participation of insulin.

    The human tissues at this stage feel energy starvation, which triggers the processes of splitting fats and proteins. This leads to the formation of a large number of acidic metabolic products, including ketone bodies. For this reason, the person is at risk of developing a ketoacidotic or hyperosmolar coma, there is a smell of acetone from the mouth. If a person loses consciousness in this case, first aid should include intravenous injection of glucose solution.

    It is noteworthy that the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus provokes late symptoms. They are associated with numerous lesions of the kidneys, vessels of the extremities, peripheral nerves. The vascular wall in diabetes mellitus is significantly denser, and therefore can not expand with the functional activity of the sympathetic nervous system. As a result, ischemia of limbs, kidneys, heart and other organs is caused. In this case, unlike atherosclerosis, diabetic angiopathy affects both large and small vessels.

    The main symptoms are an increase in blood pressure due to disruption in the vascular bed, and also due to kidney damage. In the extremities there is a sensation of cooling, it is possible the development of paresthesia. All this causes neurological and vascular disorders, which subsequently lead to the development of complications: trophic ulcers on the skin surface. Also, the wounds on the legs will heal very long, which indicates significant violations in the metabolic and regenerative processes. This condition is called a "diabetic foot".

    Unfortunately, the causes of diabetes mellitus are difficult to prevent, given that they are associated with either immune system disorders, either with heredity or with alcoholism. Therefore, the disease itself is difficult to prevent, despite many measures of the Ministry of Health and WHO.

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