How is type 2 diabetes manifested? Symptoms and causes of the disease
Diabetes mellitus is a disease in which the amount of glucose in the blood increases due to a violation of the cells' sensitivity to the hormone insulin. The disease can be 1( insulin-dependent) and 2 types( insulin-independent).The causes of diabetes mellitus are various autoimmune diseases, stresses, malnutrition, overweight and unfavorable heredity.
What is important to know about type 2 diabetes?
It is important to know that type 2 diabetes is not a congenital disease, and the onset of the disease is often sluggish and does not manifest itself violently. Diabetes itself is not as bad as the consequences and complications of the disease.
What happens in the body and what pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes? Normally, sugar( glucose) is needed by the body, because due to complex biochemical processes it turns into glycogen, which in the amount of stock for 1 day is in the liver.
Glycogen is an energy fuel for all cells in the body. The process of converting sugar into glycogen takes place with the help of the hormone insulin. In diabetes mellitus type 2, cells cease to "recognize" the hormone insulin, and the blood constantly circulates a large amount of sugar.
Extra sugar is stored in small vessels, tissues, and as accumulation disrupts the work of all organs and systems. And of course, at first, those organs in which the smallest blood vessels are located suffer, since so-called microangiopathy occurs.
Dysfunction of organs occurs for one simple reason - the way in which oxygen and nutrients are regularly delivered are clogged with sugar. So there is an insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus type 2.
If the disease is not diagnosed in time and does not control the amount of sugar in the blood, the complications that arise may lead to death. It is no coincidence that diabetes takes the third place in the world for reasons of mortality( overtaking only heart disease and cancer).
Symptoms and signs of
It is very important to know the obvious and secondary symptoms of type 2 diabetes, since adjusting the initial stages of the disease is much easier than treating diabetes in a neglected form. The main symptoms of type 2 diabetes appear gradually, but if they are present, you can suspect the initial stage of the disease.
So, the main symptoms of the disease are:
- A strong thirst that does not go away after drinking a lot of water and other drinks. Normally, a person should drink at least 30 ml / kg of water. If you see that you drink more than this rate, immediately consult a doctor!
- Due to the use of a large amount of water daily diuresis increases( the amount of urine released).
- Because sugar filters into the urine as a result of blood filtration, it becomes sticky, and this symptom is called glucosuria. To determine if there is sugar in the urine, it is enough to just pass a general urine test.
- Increased appetite. A characteristic symptom of type 2 diabetes is marked hunger immediately after eating.
- Despite the fact that the patient has a good and even increased appetite, he can lose weight.
- Due to the loss of essential trace elements in the urine, the patient is constantly tired and malaise.
- Because of impaired blood flow to the brain, symptoms such as irritability and an inability to resist stressful situations develop.
Typical signs of type 2 diabetes mellitus are decreased vision( due to retinopathy) and various necrotic processes on the lower extremities.
In addition to the obvious symptoms of diabetes, there are other symptoms of type 2 diabetes, which may not always manifest and occur not only in this disease, but also in other conditions.
- Long healing wounds on the skin, until the appearance of pustular diseases( furunculosis).
- Constant skin itching.
- Itching in the vulva( in women) and the anus.
- Change skin color to a darker color.
- Numbness and crawling "goose bumps" in the legs and hands, not passing after the massage.
- Decreased attraction to the opposite sex.
- The occurrence of frequent fungal diseases.
- Feeling cold in the lower extremities.
Depending on the ability to regulate the amount of sugar in the blood, as well as the conditions for the occurrence of complications, there are 2 types of diabetes mellitus:
- Compensated type 2 diabetes mellitus is a patient's condition when using drugs can reduce the amount of sugar in the blood to the norm and ispossibility to prevent complications.
- Decompensated type 2 diabetes mellitus - when the amount of sugar in the blood exceeds the norm, in spite of the ongoing medical measures, and the body creates favorable conditions for the appearance of complications.
That is why the complex treatment, conducted with diabetes, is reduced to resist the occurrence of complications during decompensation, as well as the maintenance of compensatory processes in the body. The main goal of the treatment is to keep the normal amount of sugar in the blood.
In order to do this, you can do sugar control in the clinic or special offices, and you can control the sugar at home. To do this, in the specialized pharmacies are available for sale various glucometers and a set of disposable needles with strips to it. Thus, it is possible to perform a fasting blood test after a carbohydrate load.
Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus is to maintain a healthy lifestyle, control over excess weight, moderate physical activity and activity, balanced nutrition, the rejection of bad habits.