Hypertonic glomerulonephritis - how to distinguish from hypertensive disease
Arterial hypertension may be primary and secondary to kidney disease. In other words, high blood pressure may occur as a result of impaired renal function, or may be a cause of kidney pathology.
Mechanism of development of renal damage by hypertensive disease
In hypertensive disease, there are always a number of changes in the entire body that inevitably lead to dysfunction of higher vasos-regulating centers with the development of neurohumoral and renal disorders. In the stage of progression of hypertension, the classic signs of renal tissue damage and narrowing of the renal vessels gradually appear. At the same time, external manifestations of renal pathology in the form of facial puffiness, headaches, and laboratory evidence of impaired renal function are observed.
However, the arterial hypertension itself is primary in this case, and the kidney damage is already a consequence of the disturbed vascular tone and spasm of the smallest arteries - arterioles.
As for the kidneys, due to sclerosis of arterioles, degenerative-atrophic processes occur in the kidney tissue. It is gradually replaced by a connective tissue and loses its original functions. However, these processes are fairly stretched in time - some nephrons die, others are forced to take on these functions, but they are gradually depleted. This mechanism continues as long as there remains a certain percentage of healthy nephrons in the kidneys.
In addition, pathology is aggravated by the addition of disorders in the neuroendocrine regulation of the body - the production of substances such as renin, angiotensin and aldosterone is enhanced. These processes are very interrelated and the greater the arterial hypertension, the more pronounced are the kidney symptoms, and vice versa, the more the kidneys suffer, the higher the arterial blood pressure.
How Arterial Hypertension Occurs in Kidney Disease
If hypertension has arisen due to kidney damage, for example, in hypertensive glomerulonephritis, then the overall development mechanism is similar, but the inflammatory processes in the kidney tissue play a primary role due to the circulation of autoimmune antigen-antibody.
These complexes have a damaging effect on the smallest vessels of the kidneys - the capillaries of the glomerular apparatus, and this leads to the development of edema and vasospasm not only in the kidneys, but throughout the body. At this point, the renin-angiotensin mechanism is activated, which leads to increased vasospasm and increased systemic blood pressure.
Despite its similarity, hypertensive glomerulonephritis has differences in the clinical picture, and when diagnosing a physician, it becomes necessary to distinguish these two diseases from each other.
How to distinguish arterial hypertension in diseases of the kidneys
Hypertensive glomerulonephritis occurs, as a rule, against a latent course of the disease. In this case, the patient feels quite satisfactory and does not make any special complaints. During the day, he can feel weakness, lethargy and weakness, headaches, but overall well-being is satisfactory.
Usually, these symptoms are mild, so patients rarely go to see a doctor. To address to experts them can force such signs as:
- Infringement of vision - a fog before eyes, flashing of flies, visual acuity decrease;
- Pain in the heart, shortness of breath, palpitations;
- They can observe morning swelling in the face and upper half of the torso not related to drinking regimen or inaccuracies in the diet.
The degree of impairment largely depends on the severity of kidney damage and the form in which hypertensive glomerulonephritis occurs. With labile hypertension, when the rise in blood pressure is periodic, the patient may confine himself to only a few complaints, but in severe kidney disease, arterial hypertension has persistent symptoms.
In such cases, the examination will reveal additional signs of hypertension:
- When examining the fundus - narrowed and severely convoluted arteries, narrowing of the lumen in the vessels and simultaneous compaction of their walls, hemorrhages and edema of the nipple of the optic nerve;
- In the study of the heart - changes on the ECG with signs of left ventricular hypertrophy;
- In the urinalysis, the symptoms will be extremely low, and they will manifest only a decrease in the density of urine, the presence of protein and blood in small amounts, and an indication of a decrease in renal filtration.
A sharp increase in blood pressure to extremely high figures is not very characteristic of renal hypertension. Also, the development of such complications as stroke of the brain or heart attack is not typical. But the development of chronic left ventricular failure is typical enough for this form of the disease. In addition, glomerulonephritis has a steady progression and is gradually transformed into chronic renal failure.
As for the defeat of the kidneys against the background of hypertension, the clinic will be observed somewhat differently. Against the background of sharply increased blood pressure, the following symptoms appear:
- Pronounced edema of the face and hands, their relationship with the intake of a large amount of liquid or salty foods the night before is clearly traced;
- Constant blunt intense headaches, especially in the occiput;
- Numbness of hands and feet;
- Urine examination shows changes in the presence of nephroangiosclerosis or chronic renal failure;
- On the side of the heart and vessels of the fundus there are pronounced disorders, indicating the stagnation of blood in a large circle of blood circulation, damage to the fundus.
These signs are easily cured by saluretics, while in hypertensive glomerulonephritis, this effect may not be observed. The most frequent complications of hypertension are myocardial infarction, strokes, chronic renal failure.
Treatment of arterial hypertension with glomerulonephritis
Whatever the reason for the occurrence of hypertension, the appointment of antihypertensive drugs is mandatory. They are prescribed in small doses, taking into account the severity of renal dysfunction. To achieve maximum and long-term reduction in blood pressure, it is necessary to switch to a salt-free diet with reduced fluid intake.
With persistent blood pressure and swelling, in addition to antihypertensive drugs, corticosteroids and diuretics are prescribed.
- To reduce blood pressure apply - enalapril, captopril, ramipril;
- Calcium channel blockers - verapamil, dialtiazem;
- Sympatholytics - reserpine, clonidine;Diuretics - furosemide, spironolactone, mannitol.
In addition to these tools, ganglion and sympathoblockers may be prescribed, but all treatment should be aimed at a smooth decrease in blood pressure, so drugs are always prescribed in small doses, increasing it only in the absence of effect or deterioration. If the patient's hypertension is observed for a long time, then the drugs are prescribed with the expectation of permanent treatment, even in the remission stage.