There are conservative and surgical treatment of glaucoma
Glaucoma are the onset of degenerative-dystrophic processes in the optic nerve that arise from the chronic increase in intraocular pressure. If you do not promptly identify the cause of glaucoma and do not start treatment, a person can lose sight and go blind. Treatment of glaucoma can be both conservative and surgical.
Methods for the treatment of glaucoma
The course of the disease is characterized by insidiousness and undefined symptoms. Most patients seek medical care in the advanced stages of the disease, when their vision is sharply reduced. That is why glaucoma is considered to be the leader of all causes of disability, obtained due to eye pathology.
Treatment of glaucoma also depends on the patient's age, condition and individual characteristics. The less concomitant chronic diseases on the part of other organs and systems, the better the treatment prognosis and the lower the likelihood of getting complications. The main goal of therapy is to reduce intraocular pressure.
For proper treatment, you must first complete a complete clinical examination and determine which form of glaucoma is present in each individual case, and also determine the stage and severity of the disease. The advantage of early and preventive treatment to the ophthalmologist at the age of over 40 is the detection of glaucoma in the initial stage, which will allow to conduct non-surgical, but conservative treatment.
For diagnostics apply the method of tonography, with the help of which the condition of fluid in the eye is examined. Tonography in glaucoma allows you to conduct and record the dynamics of the processes occurring, as well as graphically display the pressure of the eye. The peculiarity of the method is that within a certain time it is possible to determine the coefficient of lightness or the indicator of how much liquid( mm3) is flowing out of the eye in 1 minute. The calculation is carried out according to a special table and is compared with the norm.
Normally, this coefficient is 0.3 mm3 / mmHg, which should be at an outflow of 2 mm3 / minute with eye pressure not more than 15-18 mmHg. The study is conducted on an outpatient basis for 4 minutes, first anesthetizing the cornea of the eye with dicain.
Principles of conservative treatment
In conservative treatment, various drugs are prescribed for glaucoma( most often eye drops), which can reduce intraocular pressure. The drugs used for this purpose have the following effect:
- Reduce the amount of fluid inside the eye.
- Improve the outflow of intraocular fluid.
- Affect the entire process of glaucoma formation, that is, have a combined effect.
- Artificially maintain the balance of intraocular moisture.
In addition, in the early stages of the disease, physiotherapy( electrostimulation of the optic nerve) and injection with a mixture consisting of vitamins and minerals are used.
Selection of the drug is carried out only in an individual mode, because in people over 40 years( when the main number of cases of glaucoma is registered), there are various physical diseases. In addition, each of the intraocular antiglaucoma drugs has side effects and has a number of contraindications.
For example, many of these drugs can not be prescribed for obstructive pulmonary diseases and heart diseases. Agree, to find a person over the age of 40 without hinting at these problems is very difficult, so many patients are offered to perform a surgical operation.
In uncomplicated cases, a method of treatment is used, such as hirudotherapy with glaucoma, which improves drainage and outflow of intraocular fluid by almost 10 times. In addition, leeches are able to purify the eye fluid from cell decay products and reduce the intraocular pressure.
Principles of surgical treatment
Surgical treatment is aimed primarily at improving the outflow of intraocular fluid. All surgical methods have a lot of advantages, because they are inherently safe, atraumatic and very effective methods of treating glaucoma. Technique of operations can be with the help of eye microsurgery or using laser technology.
There are several types of laser treatment for glaucoma:
- Laser iridoectomy - with a laser a small aperture is made in the outer edge of the iris, which allows the eye fluid from the back chamber to penetrate into the anterior and vice versa freely. The method gives good results in the treatment of angle-closure glaucoma. When treating a glaucoma with a laser, the price of both eyes varies within the limits of 60,000 rubles.
- Laser trabeculoplasty - is used for open-angle glaucoma, during which the laser opens drainage passages.
- Laser Ciliary Ablation - used in advanced cases of glaucoma, during which the ciliary body that produces fluid is destroyed.
- Trabeculectomy - excision of part of the drainage passages, after which the liquid does not interfere freely circulate.
- Shunt devices - when microtubules or shunts are inserted into the eye cavity to improve the outflow.
- Viscocanalostomy is an operation to remove the sclera, resulting in a natural filtration of the fluid through a thin layer of the remaining tissue.