Signs, types of dacryocystitis and their treatment
Dacryocystitis is an inflammatory process in a lacrimal sac located between the inner corners of the eyelids and the nose. As a rule, various types of dacryocystitis affect people because of the impassability of the lacrimal canal, which carries tear fluid into the nasal cavity.
Dacryocystitis is about 5 - 7% of all diseases of the organs of lacrimal excision and is diagnosed by a doctor as an ophthalmologist. At female representatives the tear sack is exposed to an inflammation in some times more often. This is due to the anatomically narrower structure of the nasolacrimal pathway.
Dacryocystitis mainly affects people between the ages of 30 and 60, and newborns are considered a separate form of the disease. The danger of development of pathology in children is the high probability of damage to the body by purulent-septic pathologies affecting the cheeks, nose, subcutaneous tissue of the eyelids, soft tissues of the orbit and the brain.
The causes of the pathology
In the etiology of dacryocystitis, a great deal of importance is given to a variety of factors - professional negative influences, severe fluctuations in air temperature, nasal and sinus pathologies, trauma, poor immunity, diabetes mellitus, etc. Seizure of the nasolacrimal canal often develops due to inflammation of its mucosa in rhinitis. Often patency is impaired due to mechanical damage or unsuccessful surgical intervention. But in most cases, the main cause of the formation of dacryocystitis are pathological processes in the nasal cavity.
Types of pathology and their signs
Dacryocystitis is the inflammation of a lacrimal sac, which can also occur in newborns during the first month of their life. The process of inflammation develops due to a violation of the outflow of fluid through the nasolacrimal canals.
Dacryocystitis can often provoke severe complications and disabilities. Even minor lesions of the epithelium in the cornea due to penetration of the mote can affect the increase in the risk of contact with coccal flora from stagnant mass in the lacrimal sac. Serious complications can develop in a situation where dacryocystitis remains undiagnosed before the organization of surgical intervention on the eyeball.
Symptoms of the disease in newborns
Congenital dacryocystitis develops due to the impassability of the nasolacrimal path. The fluid that penetrates into it from the nasolacrimal tubules is retained in the eye, and therefore spontaneous leakage occurs. The lacrimal sac begins to swell, forming a swelling in the inner corner of the eye.
With such a lesion, the lacrimal fluid loses its bactericidal properties, therefore, it multiplies pathogenic microorganisms. As a result of the described process, inflammation of the mucous surface in the lacrimal sac begins.
External signs of neonatal pathology include:
- Inflamed reddened eyes.
- Discharge of purulent consistency from the lacrimal sac.
- Stagnation of tears.
- Involuntary lacrimation.
As a rule, the inflammatory process affects only one eye. In the third week of life, the dacryocystitis of infants begins to pass on their own - this indicates the breakthrough of the gelatinous film. If this did not happen, then a visit to a pediatric ophthalmologist is required.
Symptoms of purulent dacryocystitis
Acute dacryocystitis is a purulent process of inflammation in the lacrimal sac and fatty tissue surrounding it. The disease can occur even without the preceding chronic inflammatory process of the pathways of lacrimation in case of infection from the focus of inflammation in the paranasal sinuses or in the nasal cavity.
Purulent dacryocystitis causes reddening of the skin and a strong sharp painful swelling on the affected side of the cheek and nose. In this case, the eyelids also swell, and the eye slit strongly narrows or completely closes. The spread of inflammation to the fiber surrounding the bag is supplemented by a violent response of the body - the temperature rises, weakness appears and the overall well-being is disturbed.
Symptoms of Chronic Dacryocystitis
Chronic inflammation in the lacrimal sac is called chronic dacryocystitis, and it occurs mainly due to impaired passage of nasolacrimal canals. Stagnation of tears in the bag provokes the appearance there of pathogenic microorganisms, usually pneumococci and staphylococci.
In this case, purulent exudate is formed, there is abundant lacrimation and purulent discharge, the semilunar fold and conjunctiva of the eyelids turn red, a lump appears in the area of the lacrimal sac, and when pressed on it, pus and mucus appear from the lacrimal points.
Continuous lachrymation and purulent discharge from the lacrimal sac reduces human performance and limits the performance of certain professions - surgeons, jewelers, drivers, turners, athletes, etc.
In general, pathology affects people in middle age and more often develops in women. Isolation of tears intensifies in the open air, when exposed to bright light, wind or frost.
The process of treatment of pathology
To conduct treatment for dacryocystitis, regardless of its form, should only be a specialist, do not take independent action. Only a doctor should choose the best treatment for the disease. He prescribes drops and tells the scheme of their use, and also when developing a congenital form shows parents how to properly massage. In addition to visiting an ophthalmologist, an ENT consultation may be required. The ENT examines the nasal cavity for the presence of an additional pathology of an inflammatory nature.
If the nasal cavity is in order, then the patient is assigned to flushing and probing the nasolacrimal pathway. Only timely organized treatment will yield positive results and in 50% of cases of the disease it will be possible to prevent sounding.
The process of treatment of newborns
Treatment of congenital dacryocystitis is carried out in a variety of ways:
- Organization of a course of antibiotic therapy;
- Probing of lacrimal canals;
Treatment is carried out with a simple scheme. Initially, a newborn is shown carrying out a massage of the lacrimal sac, which is located not far from the inner corner of the eye. Massage the parents of the child about five times a day. The main purpose of such manipulations is to remove the embryonic film from the eye. To prevent the development of complications requires the use of antibiotic drugs and sulfonamides.
The process of treatment of chronic form of pathology
As a rule, the treatment of chronic dacryocystitis is carried out by surgical methods - for this purpose a radical operation called dacryocystorinostomy is realized, due to which the restoration of tearing in the nasal cavity is carried out. The operation consists in the formation of an anus between the nasal cavity and the lacrimal sac. The operation can be performed with intranasal or external access.
The treatment of the acute form of the pathology
Patient in the development of acute dacryocystitis appointed conservative treatment, which includes: the impact of UHF on the inflammation zone and dry heat, the commissioning of special drugs, the use of antibiotics and analgesics.
Thanks to surgical treatment, the doctor drains the abscess from the skin side after pre-softening the infiltrated tissues. An incision is formed in the course of the fibers in the circular eye muscle - this is necessary to ensure the outflow of purulent masses. Bacteriological examination helps to identify the nature of microflora and determine its resistance to exposure to certain antibiotics.
As soon as the exacerbation begins to subside, the patient is recommended to carry out an operation.