How to implement the diagnosis and treatment of dislocation of the foot correctly
Mar 07, 2018
In the total number of traumatic dislocations, footsteps account for only about 2% of cases, but such a trauma includes a huge number of varieties. This includes such traumatic pathologies as dislocation of the talus, metatarsal and metatarsal bones, ankle joint, finger, and also a subtalar shape.
It is logical that each of these types of impairment has its own characteristics, clinical symptoms and treatment methods. It is remarkable that because of the anatomical features of the human foot, dislocations in it happen much more often than fractures.
Generally, a large external force is required for the dislocation, therefore among the common causes of such damage there are falls from height and traffic accidents. You can not set foot by yourself.
First aid for this ailment consists in fixing it in a fixed position and transporting the patient to a specialized medical institution. In addition, to eliminate the pain syndrome, you can give the patient pain medications.
Types of damage
Ankle dislocation is a relatively rare phenomenon in which the ligaments and capsule of the joint are torn and the ankle fractures. As for other joints, then with this form they break much less often. In this case, the dislocation of the ankle joint may be internal and external, upper or lower, anterior or posterior.
Subtalar dislocation of the foot is characterized by injuries to the talus-calcaneus and talon-navicular joints. The reason is a sharp turn of the foot in any direction, in which the displacement of the talus from the natural position occurs, and at the opposite end of the foot, ligaments tear. Damage to the tarsal division is possible with a sharp turn of the foot to the side, and dislocation of metatarsal bones is a rather rare phenomenon that occurs as a result of injuries.
The last type of dislocation can be complete or incomplete, depending on the number of displaced bones. Displacement of the foot of the foot is most often the result of a strong direct blow to the toes or metatarsus. The dislocation itself occurs between the phalanges and the bones of the metatarsus.
Symptoms of dislocation of the foot
Depending on the specific type of injury, specialists distinguish different clinical signs that diagnose this or that type of injury:
- dislocation of the ankle is characterized by deformation of the foot, severe pain and inability to stand on the foot;
- symptoms of subtalar displacement of the foot is a change in its shape and a strong sharp pain;
- when dislocated in the tarsus, severe pain in the foot is observed, which is sharply increased with the slightest movement, as well as rapidly progressive swelling of the affected area;
- signs of displacement of metatarsal bones of the foot, in addition to severe pain and deformity, this is its shortening and widening in the anterior section;
- for the displacement of the toes is characterized by deformation and severe pain in the area of the damaged joint.
From the above information, it can be concluded that signs of dislocation of the foot, in addition to the characteristic deformities of the damaged department, always include pain syndrome.
What if this happened?
Unfortunately, from such an unpleasant and painful injury, no one is insured. Therefore, the rules of first aid will be of use to many. Independently to distinguish a bruise and a stretching of sheaves from dislocation it is simple enough. With his leg, as a rule, the muscles are fixed in one position, it hurts and swells.
It should be noted that the displacement of the foot treatment which is not performed in time may cause serious complications in the future. It is more difficult to distinguish the dislocation of the foot from the fracture, because when the last leg also swells and hurts, it loses mobility.
However, this does not play a special role, as fracture and dislocation require compulsory medical intervention. How to treat the disease, you can find out in consultation with a doctor. With regard to first aid measures, there are few such violations:
- should fix the leg in the position in which it is after the injury;
- possible, attach to the damaged limb ice wrapped in a plastic bag;
- should then call an "ambulance" or self-transport the patient to a specialized medical facility.
Treatment of the disease by various methods
Depending on which type of dislocation the doctor diagnoses, the treatment may differ. To begin with, the specialist must provide the patient with an accurate diagnosis, for which the examination of the damaged area and X-ray examination are carried out. Then, in any case, first of all, you need to fix the foot to return its bones to their normal position.
After carrying out such manipulation, the patient is usually given a control x-ray of the damaged area to make sure it is in the correct position. Next, when the ankle is shifted, the patient is gypsum plastered from the fingertips to the third of the thigh for three weeks. After removing the gypsum, the damaged joint should be developed to restore the original mobility. As a rule, rehabilitation after such an injury lasts about eight weeks.
When diagnosing a subtalar dislocation, the patient will have to wear gypsum for six weeks. After its removal, to restore the functionality of the foot, it is recommended to perform a special set of exercises of physical therapy and wearing orthopedic shoes. The displacement of the tarsal joint also requires the wearing of gypsum for two months, after which the patient is shown wearing orthopedic shoes and physiotherapy exercises.
For the treatment of dislocation of the metatarsal bones, sometimes it requires surgical intervention, after which the gypsum is also applied. Rehabilitation after such trauma consists in wearing orthopedic shoes. In some cases, during the rehabilitation period, an anesthetic cream is used during dislocations, with the help of which the residual pain syndrome is removed.
A dislocation of the foot is a serious and complex injury that requires serious treatment and thorough rehabilitation. However, with the exact implementation of all recommendations, a complete cure comes and the initial mobility of the foot returns.