Lymphostasis of the lower extremities: causes and treatment, photo, diet
The problem in this case is the patency of the lymphatic vessels, which, starting directly in the tissues, carry a fluid rich in proteins and some biologically active substances.
This liquid - lymph - is collected from each tissue( except for some), passes the lymph nodes in which it is processed by cells of immunity, flows into the venous bed. In the lower extremities, lymph, like venous blood, moves against gravity - from the bottom up. Help it to overcome the path the same factors as the blood through the veins.
lymphostasis Depending on the causes, the disease is divided into 2 main types: congenital lymphostasis and acquired.
1) The congenital form is manifested at an early age. It is based on a violation of the structure of the lymphatic system: underdevelopment, the absence of some lymphatic vessels, and their expansion. There are families, all representatives of whom suffer from lymphostasis.
2) Acquired lymphostasis - the one that develops due to the violation of the patency of lymph vessels with the formation of stagnation in them - due to other diseases and conditions, such as:
- leg injuries;
- burns of lower limbs;
- heart failure;Venous chronic insufficiency;
- operations on the legs, in which lymphatic vessels are damaged;
- inflammation in the skin;
- kidney disease;
- tumors of varying degrees of malignancy, compressing lymphatic vessels;
- endocrine pathology;
- reduced amount of proteins;
- leg stillness;
- the introduction of parasites into the lymph nodes, as a result of which lymph can not pass through them( this is typical for countries with hot climates).
Symptoms of lower limb lymphostasis
Three stages are distinguished during lymphostasis of the lower extremities, which are characterized by the following symptoms:
- 1) Reversible edema( lymphedema).In the ankle joint area, at the base of the fingers and between the metatarsal bones, painless, as yet soft, swelling occurs. The skin above it is pale, it can form a crease. After rest, such edema disappears or decreases.
- 2) Irreversible edema( fibredema).The edema becomes more dense to the touch( the depression of the depression persists for a long time, the skin is not going to fold), spreads from the foot to the shin. Soon, the deformity of the foot becomes noticeable, it is difficult to bend, it feels pain or a feeling of heaviness. If a person with a fibredema has to stand for a long time, cramps in the gastrocnemius muscles or the muscles of the foot can develop. At the same stage, the skin becomes darker, acquires a cyanotic shade, becomes coarse and thick.
- 3) Elephant. The volume of the leg increases significantly, its contours are smoothed. On the skin appear erysipelas, eczema, trophic ulcers. Diseases of the bones and joints of the affected leg are attached.
Diagnosis of lymphostasis
It is possible to suspect lymphostasis according to the characteristic appearance of the lower limb, but additional research is needed to find out the cause of the condition and determine the tactics of treatment:
- dopplerography of the vessels of the legs for the purpose of differentiation of venous and lymphatic edema;
- Ultrasound of the pelvic organs for inflammatory or neoplastic diseases, which create an obstacle to the outflow of lymph from the lower limbs;
- lymphography - X-ray examination of lymphatic permeability
- lymphoscintigraphy - radioisotope diagnostics of patency, tortuosity of lymphatic vessels, the condition of their valves;
- proteinogram - a study of protein fractions of the blood;
- general urinalysis - for diagnosis of kidney condition;
- heart ultrasound, ECG - for examination of the heart condition;
- general blood test - for inflammatory changes in it.
Treatment of lower limb lymphostasis
The goal of the treatment is to restore or improve lymph drainage from a sore leg. For this purpose, complex conservative therapy is conducted, if it is ineffective in some cases, surgery is performed.
Begin the treatment of lower limb lymphostasis with the elimination of the causes of the disease. So, if lymphostasis develops as a result of clamping of the vessels with a small pelvic tumor, then it is removed, after which one or several times the lymph drainage is improved by conservative methods.
The same applies to renal or cardiac pathology: they are corrected, after which the lymph begins to flow better from the legs. In case of varicose veins, the cause of this problem is sought and its elimination.
- table salt;
- simple carbohydrates;
- animal fats.
- vegetable oils;
- meat products;
- milk and sour-milk food;
- cereals: wheat, oatmeal, buckwheat porridge.
Patients with lymphostasis should wear compression underwear. Shoes and pants should be comfortable, so as not to cause unnecessary traumatization of tissues, as they easily become inflamed.
Read also how to treat atherosclerosis of the vessels of the lower extremities.
It consists of a set of measures, and all must be applied to achieve the effect.
- 1) Preparations, tonic of venous and lymphatic vessels, improving the outflow from the legs: "Flebodia", "Detralex".
- 2) To stimulate the work of lymphatic vessels - drugs based on licorice.
- 3) In the I-II stages locally and as a systemic therapy, preparations of vitamins P and C are used: "Troxevasin", "Troxerutin", "Venoruton".
- 4) Homeopathic preparation "Lymphomyosot" improves lymphatic drainage, stimulates metabolism. It is prescribed first in the form of injections, then in tablet form. Contraindicated in diseases of the thyroid gland.
- 5) Medicines based on horseshoe extract help to improve the tone of the venous and lymphatic vessels, reduce the appearance of sweat from them fluid( that is, reduce edema).These are "Escuzan", "Aescin", "Venitan" and others.
- 6) It is mandatory to use enzyme preparations that dilute blood, have anti-inflammatory and anti-edematous effects. This is "Phlogenzym", "Wobenzym" and others.
- 7) We use drugs that dilute blood: Trental, Clopidogrel and others.
- 8) With great care and according to the scheme prescribed diuretics: "Furosemide" or "Torasemide".
- 9) For infectious complications, local and general antibacterial drugs are prescribed.
Active substances injected into the tissues by leeches help to significantly improve the function of lymphatic vessels. This improves the condition of patients and increases their activity.
For treatment of 3-5 leeches put on the places corresponding to collective lymphatic vessels and large veins. Conduct such sessions 2 times a week. Course - 10 sessions.
Patients with lymphostasis are recommended to practice "Scandinavian walking", swimming, perform special gymnastics: the movement of lymph is dependent on muscle contractions, and a sedentary lifestyle can only aggravate.
Exercises are performed in compression stockings or tights:
- 1) In the lying position on the rug, a "bicycle" is performed alternately with one or the other leg.
- 2) While lying, raise the straight leg and perform rotational movements.
- 3) Sitting on the floor, bend-unbend fingers of feet.
- 4) In the sitting position, we rotate our feet, we draw figures and figures.
- 5) We perform similar squats( as far as the leg volume allows), without lifting the foot off the floor.
Surgical treatment of
It is used when treatment is ineffective. Preparation for intervention consists in the introduction of the dye into the lymphatic vessels, so that it is possible to visualize their localization and expansion walls.
During the operation:
- additional lymphatic drainage pathways are formed;
- the formation of muscle tunnels is performed in order to prevent lymphatic vessels from being squashed;
- the lymphoid tissue is transplanted into a more suitable place;
- removes excess fat.
If lymphostasis was detected in the initial stages, a person should be registered with a vascular surgeon and undergo periodic therapy courses. In addition, it is necessary to monitor the hygiene of the skin of the legs, timely to treat wounds and abrasions on the legs, not allowing their suppuration, to watch their own weight.
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