Hypotrophy of the left ventricle of the heart and everything about the disease
Hypotrophy of the heart is a damage that develops as a result of disturbances in metabolic processes in the cardiac musculature.
An independent nosological unit, this condition is not, but develops as a complication of some disease, which leads to a disruption of the supply of the heart muscle. Hypotrophic processes lead to a decrease in muscle tone and, ultimately, cause heart failure!
Hypotrophy of the heart, depending on the area of the affected cardiac muscle, is of several types:
- left ventricular hypotrophy with isolated left ventricular myocardial infarction;
- right ventricular malocclusion - isolated right ventricular myocardial infarction;
- total hypotrophy - the defeat of the entire myocardium.
Let's consider more in detail the most frequent pathology - left ventricular hypotrophy.
What are the causes of left ventricular hypotrophy?
All causes leading to left ventricular hypotrophy can be divided into non-cardiac and intracardiac:
- intracardiac factors are cardiac diseases, for example, myocarditis, endocarditis;
- non-cardiac causes, in turn, can be represented by:
- with alimentary dystrophy;
- intoxication( eg, barbiturates, alcohol, carbon monoxide);
- by endocrine disorders( thyrotoxicosis, hypothyroidism, impaired pituitary function);
- disorders of all kinds of metabolism due to liver disease, kidney;
- by hypoxia due to anemia;
- systemic neuromuscular disorders in myasthenia gravis, myopathy.
Pathogenesis of hypotrophic changes
Under the influence of basic etiological factors, the enzyme system of the heart muscle is damaged, which leads to disruption of intracellular metabolism. These changes cause a change in the main metabolic processes in the myocytes with the accumulation of harmful metabolic products, which further aggravate the process of damage to the heart muscle.
At the same time, the structure of myofibrils collapses, their contractility decreases and heart failure develops, due to which nutrients and oxygen are insufficiently supplied to the body.
Clinical manifestations of
hypotrophy Symptomatic manifestations of left ventricular hypotrophy of the heart can vary widely: from the absence of any complaints to the clinic of severe heart failure.
At the initial stages the disease is asymptomatic. Then patients notice pains in the precordial region, which occur after physical exertion, psycho-emotional overstrain and pass at rest. In the future, the condition worsens, the pain does not go away at rest, it is not stopped with nitroglycerin tablets, there are interruptions in the work of the heart, swelling on the lower limbs.
Patients are disturbed by a dry cough, hemoptysis, inspiratory dyspnea, a feeling of bursting, heaviness in the right hypochondrium due to stagnation of blood in the liver. Since due to cardiac hypotrophy, insufficient blood circulation develops, patients will complain of weakness, headaches, fatigue due to a weakening of blood flow to the brain.
Basic diagnostic methods
Diagnosis of hypotrophy is performed using ECG, which in this condition will be characterized by depression of the T wave, rhythm disturbances such as extrasystoles, and paroxysms.
The second method of diagnosis is ultrasound of the heart, which helps to establish the thinning of the walls of the myocardium, reduction of cardiac output and contractility, visualizes the enlarged chambers of the heart.
A very informative method is myocardial biopsy. But this is a rather complicated and traumatic procedure, which is used only in very serious cases.
Treatment of left ventricular left ventricular dysfunction
Treatment of hypotrophy is initially aimed at eliminating the disease that caused this pathological condition, for example, fighting anemia, correcting the level of hormones in thyrotoxicosis, hypothyroidism. The second point is improved nutrition and normalization of metabolic processes in myocytes with the help of cardioprotectors, B vitamins, C, potassium and magnesium preparations( eg, panangin, magnerot).
Well proven in this regard, such tools as Mildronate, Riboxin, Retabolil. In order to reduce the frequency of exacerbations of the pain syndrome, drugs that relieve psychoemotional stress( corvalol, novopassit) are prescribed.
Outside the exacerbation, patients are observed at the cardiologist, they undergo a course of physiotherapy, physiotherapy exercises, they should take cardioprotectors with preventive measures for 2-3 months for several years.