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  • Polyps in the intestine: symptoms, treatment, diagnosis, removal

    Neoplasms of various epithelial pathogenesis that are localized to the intestinal mucosa, and hang down in its lumen - are called polyps,( abnormal formations)

    Classification of tumors:

    Medical classification defines several types of polyps, depending on clinical manifestations.

    By quantitative localization, defined intestinal lesions in the form:

    • single neoplasms;
    • of multiple formations, groups located in various departments of the digestive tract.
    • family type polyposis - diffuse form.
    Internal structure:

    • glandular formation;
    • is villous and glandular-villous;
    • is hyperplastic and fibrous-fibrous;
    • juvenile type hamartomas
    In clinical diagnostics, the following is added:

    • fatal polyp( adenomatous), malignant( with malignancy);
    • benign education -( without malignancy), or the malignancy process is in question.
    Adenomatous formation of It can be of different types:

    • tubular adenoma;
    • tubular-villious;
    • villous adenoma - have a cauliflower configuration.
    It is the last two types of adenoma that have reached a large size( diameter of one centimeter or more), are prone to degeneration into malignant formation.

    Anatomical signs


    Primary development of anomalies - the top of the folds of the inner mucosa of the colon. The localization of polyps can be at various intervals, they can touch, stick together the processes into a single brush, and be scattered around the intestines in "artistic disorder."

    Dimensions are very diverse, from slightly noticeable warty formations to growth, more than four centimeters in diameter, of various shapes and shapes."Sedentary" outgrowths are attached with a thick base, "hanging" formations have a long stem.

    Tops of tumors have different, regular and irregular shapes - similar to a mushroom or ball, sprouting branches of oblong form, grayish red, bard or yellow.

    Rough or smooth surface, soft consistency, covered with a mucous secretion. A hardened polyp is a clear sign of a malignant transformation.

    Causes of polyps in the intestine


    To date, there is no unified version of the genesis and etiological development of polyposis in the gastrointestinal system.

    Among the multiple contested theories, several basic, more studied and investigated ones are taken:

    1. 1) Development of neoplasms due to inflammatory processes( irritation theory) in the digestive tract;
    2. 2) Due to pathologies of embryonic development;
    3. 3) Due to the transformation of the two-row epithelium( ascending period) - disregeneration.
    4. 4) The viral theory of
    The inflammatory theory is based on numerous studies by a group of physicians headed by a well-known surgeon, Nikolai Vasilievich Sklifosovsky, at the end of the 19th century.

    The findings are based on the following indications:

    1. 1) The formation of polyposis in persons who have suffered, at any time, GI diseases of inflammatory genesis: inflammation of the mucous layer in the intestine( colitis and enterocolitis), ulcerative colitis( NNC) and dysenteric infection.
    2. 2) The prevalence of abnormal formations in narrower areas of the intestine, where it is most susceptible to physical and chemical exposure. For example, from stagnation and accumulation of feces or injuries.
    3. 3) Inflammatory processes in the innermost coat and in the polyp.
    4. 4) Based on the preparation of polyposis by experiment under the action of the stimulus.
    The final verdict does not serve this theory, because there are some contradictions.

    For example, abnormal formations on the mucous membrane of the vermicular appendage of the intestine are extremely rare, although it is most susceptible to chronic inflammation. And vice versa, what can explain polyps in the children's intestines, if inflammations in it in childhood are not so characteristic.

    The version of the degenerative cause is based on the violation of the process of regeneration and neoplasm of cells, by their regeneration, in the inner lining of the gastrointestinal tract, and on the imbalance in the secretory function of the integumentary-pit epithelium. Such causes contribute to the violation of genetic regulation in epithelial cells, and leads to the development of benign and malignant neoplasms.

    According to the supporters of the cause, as a result of pathologies of embryonic development, the appearance of neoplasms on the surface of the inner lining of the gastrointestinal tract is directly related to the excess of embryonic tissue, with subsequent transformation into abnormal formations as a result of inflammatory processes.

    Symptoms of polyps in the intestine


    The absence of reliable signs, inherent only in the process of polyps and polyposis formation in the intestine, creates difficulties in determining the diagnosis, because the initial stage of the disease shows no signs.

    But to identify the disease all, perhaps, drawing attention to a certain symptomatology, manifested depending on the location and size of the lesions.

    The main symptomatology is manifested with an increase in the growth of abnormal growths:

    • by intestinal bleeding;
    • with mucous secretions;
    • constipation;
    • pain in the anal passage.
    The disease with the formation of multiple polyps or with polyposis does not occur asymptomatically. Is manifested:

    • signs of pain along the bowel and intoxication;
    • with a painful rapid chair;
    • bloody, purulent and mucous impurities in feces;
    • unpleasant sensations and false urge to defecate;
    • itching in the anal area;
    Due to the fact that a large number of symptoms are similar to those of other diseases, before starting treatment, the disease is differentiated with diseases of identical symptoms - internal hemorrhoids and intestinal obstruction.

    Diagnosis


    The most effective method of investigation is endoscopy. This method allows you to identify the location of the localization of education, determine the size and shape, perform biopsy sampling.

    The endoscopic method allows the doctor to make a competent plan for treating the patient. As additional measures use methods:

    • colonoscopy.
    • virtual colonoscopy.
    • Irrigoscopy.
    • of sigmoidoscopy.

    Treatment of polyps in the intestine


    The treatment of intestinal polyps consists of the use of endoscopic polypectomy and its minimally invasive methods:

    1. 1) Excision method - full or partial removal of the build-up body;
    2. 2) Electroexcision - removal by means of electro-loops;
    3. 3) Electrocoagulation method - with available polyposis location;
    4. 4) Methods of sclerotherapy and pharmacological polypectomy;
    5. 5) Combination of several techniques.
    The choice of method of treatment depends on the data of the full characteristics of the polyps. If these methods can not be used, with large outgrowths, surgical intervention is performed.

    Patients who underwent polypectomy or surgical procedure should change their diet by going on a sparing diet.

    The food should be fractional and frequent( up to 6 times), consisting of:

    • of mashed cereals and soups;
    • low-fat, steamed or boiled meat;
    • not salted and not spicy cheese;
    • sour-milk products;
    • is not sour fruit;
    • sea kale;
    • of green tea.
    It is necessary to exclude the use of provoking products - salted, fried, smoked, etc. To limit the intake of aspirin, non-steroid drugs and analgesics.

    Early detection and timely removal of intestinal polyps, will reduce the incidence of degeneration of the formations in malignant tumors.


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