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  • What is weather

    The influence of the stars. I'm with the night in a dispute. O heart! Slowly knock, When the ruffled sea Scrape the moon rays.

    Eugene Raevsky

    Man is the child of the universe, but its influence - flashes on the Sun, magnetic storms, solar and lunar eclipses, sharp weather changes - not always favorably affects our health.

    The human body feels the influence of a variety of environmental factors, including weather, and gravitational anomalies associated with an uneven change in the force of gravity of the Earth and constantly changing their position relative to the Earth of the Sun, the Moon and other planets of the solar system.

    The earth is covered by a gas blanket - it's an atmosphere. Without it, life would be impossible: there is nothing to breathe, in the day unbearable heat, and at night - terrible cold. Most of the atmosphere( 99%) is calm, but the lower 10-kilometer layer, which we are surrounded and breathing, is the

    in continuous motion - it is heated by the Sun. He literally boils and bubbles, like the contents of a giant saucepan on fire;All that we call the weather - and warm, quiet summer days, and winter snowstorms, - the result of the movement and mixing of air in the lower atmosphere - the troposphere..The temperature of the atmosphere varies from layer to layer. In the troposphere, the temperature decreases with increasing altitude, but in the thermosphere above it reaches 2000 ° C. The weather, as already indicated, is formed in the troposphere, which contains a lot of water vapor. Without it, there would be no clouds, no rain and no snow, determining the weather. The airplane in the troposphere can be strongly shaken due to the continuous movement of air masses. Therefore, modern aircraft fly in the stratosphere, above the cloud layer, where the air is clear and calm. It should be noted that some weather systems are very common all over the globe, this also applies to clouds: similar clouds are seen on different sides of the earth. Clouds form only when there is enough moisture in the air and air currents lift water vapor high into the sky. If the air is dry and the atmosphere is calm, clouds will not appear;Clear weather is usually set at high atmospheric pressure, when the air slowly descends and is practically stationary. In summer, the high pressure lasts for a long time, as air, when it sinks, does not allow external disturbances to penetrate the troposphere, and warm sunny weather can stand for several days.

    In the middle latitudes - between the tropics and the polar regions - inclement weather in most cases is associated with huge rotating atmospheric systems, which are called cyclones, or depressions, that is, low pressure areas. All the year round, especially in winter, whole families of cyclones that rotate like giant funnels carry a cold snap, cloudiness, raging winds, rain or snow. A large cyclone often reaches hundreds of kilometers wide and moves at a tremendous speed.

    It should be noted that the atmosphere, like everything in the universe, is in continuous motion. And the wind is just a movement of air, scientifically - part of the global air circulation system.

    Weather and atmosphere evoked the interest of scientists back in ancient times. However, meteorology - the science of weather - appeared only in the Renaissance, when devices for measuring temperature, pressure and humidity were invented in Italy. Around 1600, the great astronomer and mathematician Galileo Galilei created the first thermometer. After 40 years, the disciple of Galileo Torricelli came up with the first reliable barometer for measuring air pressure. In the middle of the 17th century, the Academy of Experiment was organized in Florence, where talented scientists and artists gathered. Many meteorological instruments were created there and the beginning of meteorology and scientific weather forecasts was laid.

    The current weather forecast is based on the collection and processing of numerous atmospheric measurements that are continuously produced around the globe at the same time. Information comes from various sources: ground weather stations, ships and weather buoys, air probes, aircraft and meteorological satellites.

    The energy of the Sun is crucial for the formation of weather conditions. Solar radiation drives the weather mechanism. A clear day, wind, rain, fog, snow, hail, thunderstorm - all these weather phenomena are caused by the fact that the heat of the Sun constantly changes the state of the atmosphere. The intensity of the sun's rays depends on the region, time of day and season. Differences are determined by the height of the sun above the horizon. When the sun is high, its rays fall sheer and warm strongly. When it is low, the rays fall at different angles relative to the surface of the Earth and the same energy is distributed over a larger area - the heating is weaker. Therefore, the weather is warm and cold, and on the globe - there are warm and cold areas. Of course, part of the solar heat is absorbed by the atmosphere, and only half of it reaches the earth's surface. But the Earth heats up enough thanks to the greenhouse effect that holds heat.

    Sunlight consists of 7 colors of the spectrum. When the rays of the sun pass through the atmosphere, dust particles, ice crystals and drops of water split the light into different colors. This leads to various optical effects, such as the appearance of a rainbow in the sky.

    Sometimes charged particles emanating from the Sun and captured by the Earth's magnetic field, when interacting with atoms of atmospheric gases, form the northern lights in the polar regions at night. This is an unusually spectacular sight - just an excited glow of the atmosphere.

    Invisible wave radiation of the Sun is X-rays and gamma rays, ultraviolet and infrared radiation. From time to time on the Sun processes take place, which in their essence resemble an explosion of an atomic bomb, only they are much more powerful. During these cataclysms, solar radiation is amplified many times at different frequencies, visible( from the explosion region), X-ray and ultraviolet. During solar flares, streams of charged particles emitted from the solar atmosphere into the interplanetary space, which propagate like a piston. After 12-24 hours this "concentrate" reaches the Earth, there is a strong compression of the magnetosphere of our planet, which means an increase in the strength of the magnetic field. So begins a magnetic storm.