Symptoms, types, causes of catarrhal gingivitis. Treatment and prevention of disease
The prevalence of periodontal diseases grows every day. Few pay attention to the initial stage of the process - catarrhal gingivitis. In the absence of treatment, the disease gradually develops, leading eventually to the neglected form of periodontitis and tooth loss.
The term "catarrhal gingivitis" means nonspecific inflammation of the gum, characterized by hyperemia, edema and bleeding of tissues surrounding the tooth. In this case, the dentogingival connection is not disturbed.
Causes of the disease
According to clinicians, the etiology of gingivitis includes general and local factors, but among doctors, gum disease is called a disease of unclean teeth.
- Unsatisfactory oral hygiene, microbes accumulating in the plaque, carry out the main damaging effect on the gum, causing changes in the inflammatory nature of
- The overhanging edge of the filling - it may have a traumatic effect or interfere with tooth self-cleaning, retaining food residues
- Presence of dental structuresin the oral cavity: dentures, plates and braces complicate hygienic care of teeth
- Increased acidity of gastric juice, frequent indicationsUse by carbonated beverages. In this case, the chemical factor plays a role, prolonged exposure to acid also leads to catarrhal gingivitis.
- . Incorrect bite, cramped arrangement of teeth contributes to the accumulation of microbial plaque, preventing self-cleaning of teeth.
Common causes, the state of the body's defenses, immune status, medication,, endocrine system, infectious diseases. Since the etiology of gingivitis is considered in a complex way, it should be noted that inflammation develops only with the appropriate ratio of the protective forces of the macroorganism and the damaging effect of microorganisms.
Symptoms and classification of
With the accumulation of a critical amount of microbes and imbalance in the macro- and microorganism, acute catarrhal gingivitis develops within three days. It is characterized by swelling and bleeding gums, painful eating. The patient may complain of bad breath, as well as the presence of tartar or soft plaque.
In children and adults with gingivitis, the temperature rises in the case of acute respiratory viral infections, as at this time the defenses of the body decrease, which gives rise to an increase in the aggressiveness of the microflora of the oral cavity. However, in most cases, patients do not pay attention to the above symptoms. With increased bleeding gums, a new toothbrush with a mild degree of stiffness is usually bought, and teeth cleaning is done more gently. However, this only aggravates the hygienic state of the oral cavity.
A month later the plasma cells accumulate in the gum - chronic catarrhal gingivitis develops. At the same time, the process becomes sluggish and periodically accompanied by exacerbations. In some people, gingivitis may be subfebrile, especially during the period of exacerbation of the disease.
There are two more classifications of gingivitis.
- By localization: localized( with gum lesion around an individual tooth, for example, with a trauma or overhanging edge of the seal) and generalized( with damage to the entire oral cavity)
- By severity: mild( inflammation of the gingival papilla), medium( the marginal gingiva is involved in the process), heavy( the entire gum is affected up to the alveolar part of it).
Treatment and therapy
Knowing the cause of the disease, treatment of catarrhal gingivitis, the dentist logically starts with professional oral hygiene. It consists in removal of tartar by ultrasonic device, cleaning of soft plaque with the help of Air Flow system and polishing of teeth with rubber and brushes. As a homework assignment, the doctor prescribes rinsing with antiseptic solutions( 0.06% chlorhexidine solution, Miramistin, Tantum Verde) or recommends gingivitis ointment( indomethacin, butadione, acetylsalicylic).
If the cause of gingivitis is the overhanging edge of the filling or an unsatisfactory prosthesis, the doctor adjusts his work. In the presence of braces, the patient goes to the hygienist to learn the proper brushing of teeth. If a person has a wrong bite, a dentist orthodontist can help, which will correct the mistakes of nature.
Since gingivitis is an inflammation of the gums of a non-specific nature, antibacterial therapy as an etiotropic agent is not prescribed, as it will be ineffective. Exceptions are cases with severe inflammation and fever. Therefore, the general treatment of catarrhal gingivitis includes measures aimed at increasing the body's defenses: proper nutrition, walking, vitamin therapy.
A dentist can refer a patient to a consultation with other specialists. For example, the gastroenterologist will help to cope with the high acidity of gastric juice and prescribe a diet that excludes the use of carbonated drinks. And the therapist will replace one medicine with another, with less side effects.
In any case, catarrhal gingivitis is a disease requiring increased attention, because the treatment started in time can further prevent the loss of teeth.