Physical Education in Diabetes
Jul 06, 2018
All patients with diabetes are interested in the question : can I play sports with this disease, and what physical loads are allowed?
The answer here can be only one: yes!
Why physical exertion is useful for people with diabetes? First, muscular work burns part of the glucose and, secondly, increases the sensitivity of the body's tissues to insulin. US scientists found that people who are vigorously engaged in charging at least once a week, the risk of developing diabetes decreases by 37%.Similar conclusions are made by Swedish doctors. In individuals with impaired glucose uptake, with a special diet and exercise program, the chances of switching these disorders to overt diabetes are reduced by two-thirds. If a patient with diabetes mellitus knows how to control his blood sugar level, he can engage in any kind of sport, of course, with the necessary precautions. In particular, when performing work that requires physical effort, it may be necessary to take 10-15 g of carbohydrates every half hour. But this provision applies only to high-class athletes, who are under strict individual control. Usually, a patient with diabetes mellitus should be more cautious approach to sports with extreme loads, to participate in competitions, because not always medical assistance can be provided in a timely manner.
In normal home conditions, with increased physical activity, it is necessary either to reduce the dose of hypoglycemic drugs, or additionally to "eat" carbohydrates to avoid the development of a sharp drop in blood glucose. It can be stated with certainty that physical activity is one of the important components in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. But, of course, it does not solve the problem by itself. Only in combination with diet, hypoglycemic preparations and normalization of body weight can achieve success.
Often doctors note the fact that moderate physical activity is necessary for a patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus even more than drugs, since working muscles increase glucose intake and help reduce blood sugar levels. The level of physical activity depends on the general state of health, the state of the cardiovascular system, blood pressure, concomitant diseases. You need to start small - walks in the fresh air, easy jogging, sports games. But in any case, the physical load should be a medicine and a pleasure, and not a heavy duty.
As it was said earlier, many factors influence the increase and decrease of blood sugar level. Incorrectly prescribed doses of insulin, hypodynamia, weight gain - all this leads to an increase in blood sugar. In life, there are often situations when the blood sugar level may rise or fall sharply, and the patient does not always have time to react correctly to this event. But with a good reserve, having a "safety margin", the body copes with changes in the sugar level. The most physiological way to maintain health and create a reserve "safety margin" for the body is exercise. This is one of the main components of the lifestyle of a person with diabetes. Recent studies by American scientists show that patients with diabetes who regularly exercise, have a more favorable prognosis for the development of complications. If complications are already present, then with regular sports, they develop much more slowly.
For millennia, movement and physical activity have been an integral part of human life. In order not to perish, a person worked all his life, spent almost all the time in motion.
The modern way of life has brought its negative fruits. The more comfort in the surrounding world, the less natural physical activity. This is contrary to human nature. Reduction in the intensity of natural physical activity led to the emergence of so-called "diseases of civilization", which include: angina pectoris, ulcer disease, atherosclerosis, obesity, etc. In one row with these diseases is diabetes.
The number of patients with diabetes is the most developed in industrialized countries, there is a direct link between the onset of diabetes and the reduction in physical activity. Japanese researchers have concluded that among people with a car, the incidence of diabetes mellitus type 2 is higher than those who walk.
The physical load has a beneficial effect on all types of exchange. Since the human muscles are built mostly of proteins, then, by loading muscles, we improve protein metabolism, and protein is the basis of life. With regular physical exertion, the splitting of fats intensifies, the body weight decreases, and the fat composition of the blood improves. At the same time, the prerequisites for the development of atherosclerosis and other vascular diseases are eliminated.
A huge influence is exerted by the physical load and carbohydrate metabolism. With intensive physical activity, the sensitivity of insulin receptors to insulin increases, which leads to a decrease in blood sugar levels and a reduction in the dosages of insulin. This mechanism operates not only during physical exertion as such, but is also fixed during regular physical training and sports.
By time all physical exertion can be divided into short-term and long-term. Short-term, in turn, can be planned and unplanned. If you have made one unplanned run, for example, after catching a bus, have transferred weights, then you need to eat one quickly-assimilated grain unit to prevent hypoglycemia.
With prolonged physical activity( weeding the garden, construction work), you need to reduce the dose of both short and long insulin by 20-50%.But if at the same time there is hypoglycemia, then compensate for the intake of easily digestible carbohydrates( sweet juice).With too much exercise and excessive levels of insulin in the blood, the liver does not have time to throw enough carbohydrates into the blood - hypoglycemia develops.
However, physical stress does not always lead to a decrease in blood sugar levels. Sometimes it happens that against a background of intense physical activity, blood sugar sharply increases. Each patient should firmly remember and follow one rule - never start physical activity with blood sugar above 15 mmol / l. Do lower blood sugar levels with insulin and only then start the planned physical work.
To a child with diabetes, it is very important to create the right regimen. Exercise can promote good absorption of sugar and reduce its level in the blood, and this allows you to reduce the dose of insulin administered.
However, all actions aimed at increasing physical exertion( including exercise), it is necessary to coordinate with the doctor. The fact is that in children receiving insulin, the level of sugar in the blood is unstable. It can and sharply rise, and sharply fall, and with a sharp drop in it develops a serious condition - hypoglycemia. You can not plan physical activity during those hours when the sugar level is lower - usually from 12 to 14-15 hours a day. Conversely, gymnastics and other sports are useful in those hours when a child, as a rule, has a high level of sugar in the blood or urine, that is after 16-17 hours.
From physical education at school, from all kinds of competitions, the child must be released, since a teacher dealing with large groups of children will not be able to control his condition. Constant monitoring is necessary, because hypoglycemia can develop with great physical exertion. For the same reason, children, especially those of primary school age who are not yet able to correctly assess their condition, do not allow long-distance tourist trips, long-distance swings.
A child with diabetes mellitus should understand what the violation of diet and regime can lead to. And at the same time, try to do everything that he does not "go to illness" - did not feel defective, did not become suspicious.