• Diagnosis of diabetes

    Diabetes mellitus is the most common disease of the endocrine system. Recently, there has been a significant increase in diabetic patients, which can be attributed to urbanization, with an increase in the number of nervous stresses. The cause of the development of diabetes is( primary or secondary) insulin deficiency, which can be due to hereditary insufficiency of the islet apparatus of the pancreas that produces insulin, or acquired diseases of the pancreas, including tumors, injuries, infections, sclerosis of pancreatic vessels. Provoking factors in the development of the disease are often food, especially the abuse of sweets, stressful conditions, head trauma. Recently, there have been many cases of so-called "hidden diabetes", when the disease for the time being does not show itself and is secretive.

    Diabetes mellitus - is a common disease caused by a deficiency of the hormone insulin, which is produced by the pancreas.

    This disease takes the 3rd place after cardiovascular diseases and oncology.

    It is necessary to know the signs of the disease:

    • constant thirst;

    • frequent urge to urinate;

    • weight loss;

    • unquenchable hunger;

    • increased fatigue, drowsiness, weakness;

    • blurred vision;

    • Numbness or itching, tingling in the palms, feet, in the genital area and anus;

    • poorly healing wounds and ulcers.

    Each of these symptoms alone, and even more so 2-3 of them in the complex - a serious reason for the blood test for glucose. Consult a physician.

    • adverse heredity;

    • birth weight 4.5 kg or more;

    • Overweight;

    • the use of with with the food of increased amount of fat and sugar or products containing sugar;

    • frequent overeating;

    • lack of vitamins, especially A, B, E, and a number of microelements( sulfur, nickel);

    • decreased immunity.

    The main symptoms of diabetes: thirst, frequent urination, increased blood sugar and urine. Deep changes occur in all organs and tissues. Skin in diabetic patients is usually rough, dry, easily flaky, covered with combs caused by itching, which is especially pronounced in the perineal region. Often patients suffer from furunculosis, eczema and other skin diseases. From the gastrointestinal tract, you can also notice certain changes. Mucous membranes of the mouth are dry, the tongue is covered with a yellowish-brown coating. Patients are constantly experiencing a feeling of hunger( which is due to irritation of the food center), with severe forms of diabetes mellitus, nausea, vomiting, and sometimes abdominal pain are associated with these phenomena.

    There are different types of diabetes mellitus. For all types, the ability of the body to absorb the necessary amount of sugar from the blood is impaired, but in each case the cause of such a violation is different. The most common types of diabetes are type I diabetes and type II diabetes.

    Type I diabetes is called insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus due to the fact that patients need to do daily insulin injections in order to live. This type of diabetes is usually treated mainly with medicines and diet.

    Type II diabetes, or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, most often occurs in older people. In the beginning of the disease with symptoms you can cope without the help of insulin. However, over time, patients can switch to insulin therapy because other types of treatment become ineffective.

    The incidence of cardiovascular lesions in patients with diabetes mellitus reaches 70%.Often observed atherosclerotic lesions of the vessels of the lower extremities. Basically, the capillary vascular system suffers, which leads to gangrenous tissue changes.

    Strongly suffer from diabetes mellitus. There are accumulations of exudate and small hemorrhages in the retina, which leads to a sharp violation of vision. This vision disease( diabetic retinopathy) lasts for years with periods of exacerbations and damping of the inflammatory process. Then progressing, then undergoing reverse development, it can lead to a complete loss of vision. Diabetes mellitus usually contributes to the development of atherosclerosis, with the entire set of its clinical manifestations.

    With improper or inadequate treatment, the disease progresses, pains in the limbs appear due to peripheral nerve damage. In the body of the patient gradually accumulate products of incomplete oxidation of fats( ketone bodies);increasing their concentration in the blood leads to poisoning the body. Thirst and weakness are amplified, the amount of urine released increases, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain appear. In neglected cases, you can catch the smell of acetone from the mouth. If you do not continue to provide assistance, then a serious complication develops, such as a diabetic coma.

    Glucose is one of the most important components of blood;its amount reflects the state of carbohydrate metabolism. Glucose is evenly distributed between blood shaped elements and plasma with some predominance in the latter. The concentration of glucose in the arterial blood is higher than in the venous blood, which is explained by its continuous use of tissues and organs by cells. The concentration of glucose in the blood regulate the CNS, hormonal factors and liver.

    With a number of conditions, the glucose level in the blood rises( hyperglycemia) or decreases( hypoglycemia).

    Most often, hyperglycemia develops in patients with diabetes mellitus. The diagnosis of diabetes mellitus can be established with a positive result of one of the following tests:

    For epidemiological or screening purposes, one result of determining the fasting glucose concentration or 2 hours after oral glucose loading is sufficient. For clinical purposes, the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus should always be confirmed by repeated testing on the following day, except for cases of undoubted hyperglycemia with acute metabolic decompensation or obvious symptoms.

    In accordance with the new recommendations, the following plasma glucose concentrations in plasma of fasting venous blood have diagnostic value( WHO recommends only using plasma venous blood test results for diagnosis):

    In addition to diabetes mellitus, hyperglycemia is possible in the following conditions and diseases:

    , CNS damage,hormonal activity of the thyroid gland, bark and adrenal medulla, pituitary gland;

    trauma and brain tumors, epilepsy, carbon monoxide poisoning, severe emotional and mental arousal.

    Hypoglycemia can be caused by the following causes of