Grapes useful properties
Jul 06, 2018
Grapes is a large liana climbing with antennae, reaching 30-40 m in length. The bark on the old stems is brown, furrowed, on young - yellowish or reddish. The branches are bare, sometimes with flaky pubescence.
Leaves alternate, petiolate, with early falling staplers, usually three-, five-lobed or dissected. Antennae opposite to leaves, branchy. Flowers small, inconspicuous, numerous, bisexual or functional-pistillate( rarely found functional-staminate).Corolla yellowish-green, five-membered, stamens five, ovary superior, two-nested, short, stigma unobtrusive. Fruits are berries in clusters, usually with a wax coating. Seeds - 1-7 in the berry, with a beak. There are varieties of seedless. Blossoms in May-June, fruits ripen in August-September.
Grapes is a very ancient culture, more than 3000 years before Mesopotamia and Babylon, grapes were already known, and in Armenia - for 2000 years. Ancient Egypt, Ancient Hellas, Roman state are the countries where viticulture was widely developed. After the campaigns of Julius Caesar, the culture of grapes appeared in Southern France, and from the 16th century it was cultivated on the Rhine, and then in the Danube countries. Grapes were grown in Central Asia and Armenia, later in Georgia, then on the southern coast of the Crimea, then in Moldova. At the beginning of the XVII century in Astrakhan appeared the first vineyard, and from the beginning of the XVIII century by decree of Peter I it was grown on the Don.
There are more than 70 species of wild grapes and more than 5000 cultivars. Varieties of grapes differ not only in their botanical characteristics, but also in their chemical composition.
Vitamin C in grapes is small - an average of 4 mg%, but many varieties contain it 8-10 mg%, potassium salts( 225 mg%), organic acids, vitamins P, PP, B1, B2, B6, B12, provitamin A, and also salts of calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, cobalt, pectin and tannins, as well as a significant amount of folic acid. In berries 17-20% of sugars, mainly glucose.
Medicinal raw materials are fruits and leaves. Fruits contain many sugars - glucosides and fructose, flobafen, gallic acid, quartzetin, enin;glycosides - monodolididine and didefinidin;acids: apple, phosphoric, silicic, salicylic, tartaric, citric, succinic, formic and in an insignificant amount oxalic;salts of potassium, calcium, iron, magnesium and vitamins B1, B2, A, C.
Seeds contain tannins, flabofenes, lyxetin, vinimin and fatty oil.
Sugar, inoside, quartzetin, tannins, carotene, choline, betaine, aloxuric bases, tartaric, malic, ascorbic and protocatechic acids, potassium, sodium, phosphorus, iron, silicon were found in the leaves of ordinary grapes.
Grapes - effective diuretic, laxative and expectorant, is useful in diseases of the kidneys, lungs, liver, gout and hypertension, apply it and as a restorative.
Grape varieties such as Isabella, Muscat, Cabernet, Hamburg are highly antimicrobial.
Was known for its high healing properties even in Mesopotamia and Babylon 5,500 years ago. Grapes were imported to Russia in 1613, and since then its popularity has increased.
Grapes contain potassium, calcium, magnesium, manganese, cobalt, vitamins C, P, PP, B, B6, B12, folic acid, carotene. Grapes are rich in carbohydrates( 18-20%), organic acids( malic, salicylic, citric, amber, ant, etc.).
Grapes and grape juice give excellent results in the treatment of certain diseases of the heart, lungs and abdominal organs.
Vinogradotherapy normalizes blood pressure, resolves small kidney stones and displays them in the form of sand. The daily portion of the grapes is up to 1 kg per day at the beginning of the treatment and up to 2 kg per day at the end of it. The daily dose of grapes divides sodium into equal parts - morning, lunch and evening. Take it an hour before eating.
In folk medicine, the fruits of grapes are used as an antipyretic and anthelmintic.
Grapes have a urine and choleretic effect, is used as a restorative for weakened patients, is used in the treatment of nephritis, renal and cholelithiasis, hemorrhoids, hoarseness, bronchitis, bronchial asthma, gout, increases metabolism, has a good effect in nervousexhaustion and overwork.
The course of treatment with grapes - 1-2 months( 200 g three times a day, in the second month of treatment - up to 2 kg per day).
Since ancient times, grapes are used to treat diseases of the metabolism, liver, kidneys, lungs, cardiovascular system.
In modern medicine, grapes are used especially for diseases of the heart, bronchi, kidneys, liver, gout, nervous system depletion, hypertension and as a restorative.
The therapeutic effect of grapes is conditioned, first of all, by the content of a large amount of glucose and potassium salts.
The amount of grapes to be prescribed is individual, but they always start with small doses: 200-300 g, gradually reaching 2 and even 3 kg per day. Grapes should be eaten on an empty stomach 1,5-2 hours before a meal. The course of treatment lasts one to six months. When gout is used not only fresh juice( grapes), but also raisins. For the treatment can be consumed and canned grape juice, while you should consider that it contains fewer vitamins.
Leaves of grape in the form of infusion are prescribed in violation of the exchange of oxalic acid, as they contribute to its excretion.
In addition to the above, grape juice is used with reduced nutrition, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract( chronic gastritis with increased secretion of gastric contents, spastic and attic constipation), chronic bronchitis, bronchial asthma in mild and moderate form, pulmonary tuberculosis, chronic nephritis and neurosis-nephritis( without hypotension and edema), chronic urethritis and urocystitis, hemorrhoids, metabolic disorders, anemia, gouty diseases, etc.
In folk medicine, grapes are used withthe same goals as in the scientific, with kidney disease, kidney stone disease, stones in the liver and gall bladder, hemorrhoids, etc.
Leaves are widely used. Infusion of them is used for rinsing with angina and for washing with skin diseases.
Infusion of leaves harvested in May, recommended for hypertension. Powder from dried leaves 2-4 g inwards is given as a uterine hemostatic.
Grapes are one of the most ancient plants used by man. It is difficult to establish the origin of grapes, as there are many archaeological studies and various legends that refer to different regions.
The fruits of grapes contain up to 20%( and sometimes even more) of sugars, up to 2.5% of organic acids( 60% of them are apple and almost 40% of tartaric acids), there are few oxalic and salicylic salts, and also mineral salts:Potassium( up to 22.5 mg%), calcium, magnesium, iron( 0.5-0.6 mg%), manganese, cobalt, pectin substances, vitamins C, P, PP, group B( B1, B2, B3,B6), provitamin A( carotene), insignificant quantity of folic acid, quercetin, glycosides of mono- and dydelfinidida, enzymes( invertase, pectinase, protease and lipase).In the peel of berries contain dyeing and tannins, glycerides and phytosterols.
Grape juice is useful primarily as a restorative. Since ancient times, it is widely used in folk and scientific medicine. Ancient Greek doctor Dioscorides prescribed juice from immature grape fruit as an antipyretic agent at high temperature, as well as against sore throats and ulcers in the mouth and during hemoptysis. Ancient and medieval doctors gave grape juice for thirst quenching, against dysentery and in the absence of appetite, against hepatic colic. Salerna School recommended the juice of ripe grapes as a diuretic and mild laxative. Grape juice, evaporated to 1/3 of the original volume, was used for lung diseases.
Grape juice has a tonic effect. It is useful in the exhaustion of the nervous system( asthenia) and the decline of forces. Rich in glucose. It has diuretic, diaphoretic properties. Reduces the cholesterol in the blood. Drink the juice one hour before meals three times a day. Start with half a glass of juice and at the end of the course, after 1-1.5 months, bring up to 2 glasses at the reception. You can not drink in large quantities with a tendency to diarrhea, diabetes, obesity, gastric ulcer, chronic inflammatory processes in the lungs.
Some scientists of the past compared grape juice with human milk both in terms of their chemical composition and utility.
As a fortifying agent, grape juice is used for bronchial asthma, anemia, pulmonary tuberculosis, with different asthenic conditions and lipid and mineral metabolism disorders, atherosclerosis, chronic nephritis, gout, the initial stages of hypertension, with dry and exudate pleurisy.
Grape juice is also recommended for inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract( especially with increased acidity of gastric juice and constipation), with hemorrhoids.
It is effective in functional disorders of the cardiovascular system and as a means of normalizing blood pressure.
Juice of immature grapes is used as an antipyretic, as well as in angina and ulcers in the mouth. Raisins are prescribed for cough and bladder disease as a diuretic and mild laxative.
Grape juice acts like alkaline water, but with the advantage that it is dominated by potassium, iron, phosphoric and silicic acid salts, and in alkaline waters there are more sodium and chlorine ions. That is why grapes are especially recommended for people prone to urinary diathesis. It helps to remove uric acid from the body, prevents the formation of stones.
In addition, long-term treatment with grape juice regulates blood pressure. When assigning grapes or its juice for medical purposes, it is necessary to limit other fruits and vegetables, as well as milk, kvass, mineral waters and spirits, since with the simultaneous use fermentation processes intensify and intestine function disorder may occur. When treating grapes, it is recommended to take indefatigable walks.
The course of treatment with grape juice lasts a long time, usually 1-1.5 months, and sometimes longer. Fresh juice is consumed in equal portions 1 hour before meals in the morning, afternoon and evening. At the beginning of treatment, the daily dose is no more than 4 glasses, and then gradually increases to 1.5.In the treatment can be used and canned grape juice, but natural is preferable. When treating grape juice, it is recommended to eat light foods, refrain from raw milk, raw fruits, mineral waters, spirits.
In Russia, the treatment of grape juice has long been practiced both in folk and scientific medicine. Summing up the experience of such treatment by Russian doctors, Dr. N.Z.Umikov wrote in 1938: "According to the observations of many authors, grape treatment can be used for many diseases: with a general decline in body nutrition, with initial closed forms of tuberculosis and chronic bronchitis;with nervous diseases of a functional nature;with pale infirmities and mild forms of anemia, with chronic constipation and hemorrhoids, with some forms of catarrh of large intestines;accompanied by constipation, with functional suffering of the stomach with high acidity;with urine acid diathesis and gout;with some forms of kidney disease and renal pelvis;with liver diseases and with obesity. .. ".
Russian doctors have long been using grape juice widely in the treatment of various diseases in children, in particular with the decline of strength.
Grape juice is a wonderful cosmetic. The skin becomes velvety, if in the mornings, after cleansing with milk of milk, lubricate it with a cotton swab dipped in grape juice from three to four grapes. After 15 minutes, rinse your face with cold water.
Grape juice is contraindicated in diabetes mellitus, obesity, peptic ulcer( during an exacerbation), chronic suppuration in the lungs, heart failure accompanied by severe hypertension and swelling, with increased fermentation in the intestines and with diarrhea.
American cardiologist A. Klatsky argues that people who regularly consume red grape wine are the most protected from heart attacks and strokes due to special substances contained in grapes.
A small regular dose of natural red wine can be useful for cardiac activity, as, indeed, the juice of red and black grapes, as well as raisins obtained from grapes of these varieties. These products help to reduce the cholesterol in the blood.
Moreover, biochemist T. Leighton discovered in red wine a special substance with anti-cancer properties. In addition to wine, this substance, called "quercetin", the scientist found in red grapes, red onions, broccoli and pumpkin cabbage."Quartzetin", perhaps, is one of the most powerful natural anti-carcinogens.
For wine, certain grape varieties are used.
2 kg of grapes( preferably black), 3 liters of boiling water, 4.5 liters of juice 4 glasses of sugar, 0.5 tbsp.spoons of yeast, 1 teaspoon of almond essence.
It is made according to the principle of apple wine.
Wine is enriched with vitamins, especially vitamin P, which promotes absorption in the body of ascorbic acid. Tanning and coloring substances of red grapes have an especially high P-activity, so red wine is considered more useful than white wine. The wines contain potassium derivatives, which have a beneficial effect on the work of the heart. Organic acids and pectins, also present in wine, remove the body from slags and stimulate metabolism. Essential oils lower blood pressure and well stimulate the nervous system.
Wine facilitates the digestion of heavy fatty and spicy food, improves the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract. If you drink a glass of grape wine before dinner, the risk of stomach and duodenum ulcers is significantly reduced. Wine stimulates the timely release of gastric juice, that is, prevents bloating, as food processing begins immediately after it enters the stomach.
Wine is an excellent defender of the body from aging, because it contains polyphenols( originally they are in the grape peel).Polyphenols act on the body in different ways. Some strengthen the blood vessels, others prevent the destruction in the body of collagen - the substance from which the skin and blood vessels consist. Collagen helps fight wrinkles and keep the skin elastic. In addition, polyphenols are struggling with free radicals, which are one of the causes of aging, reduce the risk of Alzheimer's disease.
With the help of wine, you can protect yourself from the flu epidemic. The tannin contained in the wine does not allow penetration of the virus into the cells of the body. In the midst of an epidemic, take one tablespoon of preferably red wine before bed. In addition, in an acidic wine environment, bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus, Salmonella are killed. Even the water from a contaminated well or pond can be decontaminated by adding wine to it.
Alcohol, which is contained in wine, stimulates the adrenal glands to a more active work. They begin to produce estrogen, which helps women painlessly suffer an ailment during menstruation. A week before the onset of the cycle, drink 100 grams of warm wine at night.
• If you have a stomach disorder, you should consume red dry wine one tablespoon before eating.
• Anemia - table wine. On a teaspoon three times a day, regardless of food intake.
• With flu and catarrhal diseases, drink hot mulled wine with the addition of 100 ml syrup or sugar per night.
• In case of heart disease, light white wines will help.
• For severe headaches, take 1-2 teaspoons per day of port wine or sherry.
• If you have a toothache, heat a little red wine and, putting it in your mouth, hold for about 30 seconds. Repeat the procedure several times.
• If red wine from grapes is diluted with boiled water, it can be used as hydrogen peroxide - disinfect and stop blood from small cuts.
• The use of wine after eating prevents the increased production of insulin, the increased content of which in the body leads to a sharp increase in weight. If you eat 15 grams of red wine after dinner, it will help you to lose 5-7 kg in a few months.
Healing properties of wine are also used in cosmetology. Wine can be used as a tonic for restoring skin balance, constricting pores and disinfecting. In the morning it is desirable to wipe the skin with white wine, and in the evening - red. It is very suitable for these purposes, "Martini", infused with herbs. You can also make a nutritious wine mask for the face. Crush bread crumb in wine. The resulting gruel is applied to the face. Keep for 20 minutes. Then rinse with warm water without soap.
Rosemary tincture is an excellent cosmetic to strengthen the elasticity of the skin of the face and neck. Prepare it easily. To do this, a spoonful of rosemary( you can buy the ground up) pour a glass of dry red wine. Bottles with infusion 2 days shake. After 6 weeks, drain the solution, store it in the refrigerator.
Twice a day, wipe with a cotton swab, tap the skin of the face and neck. This procedure will significantly improve the condition of the skin of the face and neck.
The berries of grapes are consumed fresh, its taste and nutritional properties are well preserved and in dried form - a suit.
Marinated grapes are used as a seasoning or a side dish to fried game and meat dishes. Add grapes to cabbage "Provencal".
Grapes make syrups, cook compotes and jam. Grape juice preserves all the beneficial properties of berries.
Vine leaves are used to prepare cabbage rolls.
You can make jelly from grapes:
Pure berries are placed in an enamel saucepan, poured with a small amount of water so that they are covered and put on fire, cook until the skin rips on all the berries and the juice drips out. Then filter and 1 liter of juice put 800 grams of sugar, put on fire and boil until it boils out 1/3 of the contents, add one glass of sour apple juice and cook until ready. Hot jelly is poured into cans, after cooling it is covered with paper and tied.
For the preparation of compote use large, dense, fleshy berries of grapes.
The first way. The washed berries are placed in cans with a brush, filled with syrup( 300-400 g of sugar per 1 liter of water) and heated at 85 ° C: 10-minute cans, 10-liter, -15 liters, 20 liters, 3 liter 30, or boiling water- accordingly 3,5,8 and 10 minutes.
The second way. Berries with a brush stack in jars, pour berry juice, add to 1 liter of juice of 100-200 g of sugar and boil. Warm as indicated in the first method.
The third way. A good large grape is washed with water and without brushes placed in cans and poured with cold syrup( 300 400 g of sugar, 1 liter of boiled water);at 85 ° C warm up: liter cans - 15 minutes, two-liter - 20, three-liter - 30 minutes.
1. Grape juice 70 g. Lemon juice 20 g. Mint syrup 20 g.
Cherry juice 30 g. Juices and syrup are thoroughly mixed, cooled and drunk through a straw.
2. Grape juice 50 g.
Grape white wine 40 g
Peppermint syrup 30 g
Lemon juice 15 g.
Raspberry syrup 20 g.
Wine, juices and syrups are mixed, cooled, add 15-20 g of ice,once again carefully mix and drink through a straw.
To 1 water add 1/2 cup sugar and boil on low heat for 2-3 minutes, cool, pour 1/2 grape juice and 40-50 grams of lemon syrup.
Berries are large and unripe, remove from the combs, remove the seeds and dip into hot syrup( 1 kg of grapes, 1-1.2 kg of sugar and two glasses of water), shake, remove from heat and leave until completely cooled. Cook in three to four receptions for 10-15 minutes with a stand for 3-4 hours. At the end of cooking add 3-4 g of citric acid. The readiness is determined by the density of the syrup or by the temperature of 105 ° C.
Marinate the grapes are large and with dense skin as separate berries, and small bunches. The berries are placed in cans, pour a cold marinade( 450 g of water, 400 g of sugar, 100 g of 9% vinegar and five or six pieces of sweet pepper and cloves and a little cinnamon).Sugar, water and spices boil for 5-6 minutes, cool, filter, add vinegar( half can be replaced with juice of acidic berries), put on fire and boil at a temperature of any jar 3 min or at 85 ° C pasteurize: liter cans - 15min, two-liter - 20 and three-liter - 30 min.
Apply for treatment and oil from grape seeds, especially in cosmetology.
Oil is yellow-green in color, odorless. It has a sweet, pleasant taste. In oil, there are saturated fatty acids, which are easily perceived by the skin, retain moisture in its cells. This keeps the skin fresh and elastic. Oil is an indispensable component of quality cosmetics and is widely used in its pure form. Application of the external in pure form or in combination with essential oils( 10-15 grams of grape seed oil + 2-3 drops of essential oil or mixture).
When treating grapes, it is necessary to refrain from drinking alcohol, raw milk, raw fruits, mineral water and diet.
Grapes, getting on carious teeth, strengthens their destruction, therefore before treatment by grapes it is necessary to cure a teeth. For the protection of teeth is recommended after each intake of grapes rinse your mouth with a solution of tea soda.
It is not recommended to eat grapes and grape juice for diarrhea, flatulence, obesity, diabetes.
Contraindicated grapes for chronic heart failure, hypertension, with edema, diabetes and peptic ulcer!