Diet therapy for chronic diseases
Jul 06, 2018
Dietotherapy medical nutrition. It is performed either as an independent treatment method, or in combination with other types of treatment. In its pure form, dietotherapy is most often used for diseases of the digestive tract and metabolic diseases. A certain diet should be followed and people with diseases of the respiratory system, in old age, with cancer and all chronic patients.
The choleretic and diuretic action of the diet has been well studied, its effect on secretory and motor disorders of the digestive organs, as well as on the processes of digestion and absorption of food.
With the so-called disease of the operated stomach( after operations on the stomach), the restriction of liquid and carbohydrates is shown with a high content of fats and proteins. In diseases of the small intestine, protein-vitamin nutrition is indicated. With peptic ulcer of the stomach and duodenum differentiated diets are used depending on the stage of the disease. Enhanced protein-vitamin nutrition with a mechanically sparing diet accelerates the scarring of large stomach ulcers.
It is now known that the fat regime increases the excitation processes, carbohydrate after meat reduces the processes of excitation and inhibition, and meat after carbohydrate greatly reduces conditional and unconditioned food reflexes.
Rapid transitions to protein loads enhance excitation processes, and restriction of carbohydrates, in addition to diabetes and obesity, is recommended as a "desensitizing" diet for rheumatism, nephritis and colitis.
In allergic diseases, a rapid effect is achieved only when food allergen is excluded from food. In these cases, a milk-based diet rich in calcium is effective. From the diet of patients must be excluded all irritating spices, spicy foods and seasonings. Undesirable tea and coffee. The daily diet of an allergic patient should include fresh fruits and vegetables, greens, sprouted wheat grains( or any other culture).The sample menu should look like this:
Breakfast: fresh fruit, vegetables, cereal sprouts, fruit juice, greens.
Lunch: salad of fresh vegetables( seasoned with sunflower oil or lemon juice), soup with dark bread, legumes, vegetables with greens. On the second instead of legumes you can eat liver or fish.
Snack: fruit, cheese, juice.
Dinner: Fresh vegetables with greens and legumes.
The principle of anti-inflammatory diet is to limit sodium chloride, which has a dehydrating, diuretic and analgesic effect.
In hypertensive disease, the strongest effect is provided by a strict salt-free diet( the less salt is in the food, the better), a fruit and rice diet( short courses of 15 days every two months), a magnesium diet( hypotensive effect: bran, cereals, soybean, peas, nuts, beans).Limit dairy products, rich in calcium, food is prepared without salt. Spicy seasonings, spices, vinegar pepper should be consumed in the minimum amount. It is necessary to limit the amount of food eaten and try to reduce weight if it exceeds the norm.
Tea, coffee, alcohol should be completely excluded from the diet. The daily menu should include salads with vegetable oil, fresh fruits and vegetables, greens, milk and sour-milk products, sprouted cereals, nuts. From meat dishes, you can eat fish, liver or veal in a limited amount every other day.
In atherosclerosis, the main importance is attached to the restriction of cholesterol, fats( with partial replacement of animal fats with plant).A particularly useful effect is attributed to corn oil, which prevents deposition of cholesterol on the walls of the vessels and removes cholesterol from the body. Vegetable fiber( black bread, vegetables, fruits) also contribute to the removal of cholesterol from the body, and easily digestible carbohydrates( sugar, white bread) is limited because of their rapid transition to fatty deposits. Vitamins for atherosclerosis are most useful: vitamin C, the whole group of vitamins B.
When angina and myocardial infarction in food, limit the amount of cholesterol, fats, sodium and products that cause gas production. The patient's diet is similar to the diet of hypertension.
For obesity, a long-term, low-calorie, low-carb and low-fat diet with varying degrees of severity is preferred. It is known that the cause of obesity is most often overeating, sedentary lifestyle and lack of physical activity. First of all, you need to observe the strictest diet, do not eat up before going to bed, eat 2-3 times a day, limit sweets( carbohydrates quickly turn into fatty deposits), chew food well.
It is necessary to increase physical activity: walk more, exercise and perform not very hard physical work. It is important that the amount of calories consumed does not exceed the number of calories consumed during the day.
Drink no more than 2.5-3 liters of fluid per day, without washing down food. The main emphasis in nutrition is on vegetables and fruits. Do not fry meat, but cook or bake. Fruits, vegetables, greens are( if possible) in their raw form. Exclude from the diet exciting spices, spices, spicy seasonings. Twice a week to arrange apple or kefir days.
In nephritis, the proteins are either abruptly reduced( with high azotemia), or consumed in normal amounts( with nephroses with insufficient protein).Sharply limit the salt and regulate the amount of liquid drunk.
In infectious diseases, the diet should strengthen the defenses of the body and increase diuresis( for the fastest elimination of toxic substances and decomposition products of microorganisms from the body).In food in large quantities should contain vitamins C and A, it should be high-calorie and easily assimilable.
Partial fasting in the form of fasting days is recommended for obesity, gout, diabetes, with stomach and intestinal diseases.
In endocrine diseases, the body requires a large amount of carbohydrates and fats when restricting proteins, especially those contained in meat. They are rich in tryptophan, which increases basic and energy metabolism. It requires a lot of vitamins B!and A.
For skin diseases, a good effect is given by days of raw plant food with a large number of vitamins C and PP.It is obligatory for all skin diseases, especially chronic ones, to purify the body, since the skin is an indicator of the internal purity of the body. And whatever the patient is treated daily, you need to take the root of licorice once a day.
In diseases of joints, such as arthritis, gout, rheumatism, it is not recommended to use sour-milk products, vinegar, lemons, apples of acid varieties. The diet should include beans, vegetables, fruits, fish, liver, nuts, honey, seeds.
Soups should be prepared not on meat broth, and in general, all broths should be avoided. It is useful to include in the diet of porridge: buckwheat, oatmeal, etc.
Supper should be easy, no later than two hours before bedtime.
Digestive disorders are characterized by symptoms such as pain, eructation, heartburn, diarrhea, constipation. With a gross violation of dietary rules, all without exception, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Contribute to this stressful situation, nervous overexertion, unbalanced nutrition.
For all diseases of the digestive system, it is strictly forbidden to drink coffee, strong tea, carbonated drinks, smoked products, spices, spices, vinegar. Special attention should be paid to milk. The intake of fresh milk always causes a deterioration in the general condition of patients with diseases of the stomach and intestines. This is explained by the fact that, fermenting, it emits a large number of gases, which, raspiraya walls of the stomach and intestines, cause pain. Sour-milk products of such phenomena do not cause.
For any disease of the digestive tract, avoid eating baked products containing yeast. They cause the same effect as fresh milk. More attention should be paid to fruits and vegetables, especially cabbage( vitamin U), nuts, legumes, sprouted grains, greens, various juices.
With diabetes you can eat unsweetened vegetables and fruits, sprouted cereals, fish, liver, eggs. It is necessary, and extremely important, to get rid of the excess weight, not to neglect exercise and sports, jogging. Patients are assigned dietary number 9.
The main thing in the treatment of diabetes of any type is considered to be a diet that can be the main therapy for mild diabetes and a good assistant to a doctor with an average and severe degree. The main principles of diet therapy for diabetes include the following:
1. In the first type of diabetes mellitus, the diet should be physiological in composition of food products and normal in content of calories.
2. In the second type of diabetes mellitus, accompanied by excessive body weight, the diet should be low-calorie.
3. Easily absorbed carbohydrates should be excluded from food, emphasis should be placed on slowly absorbed carbohydrates, sufficient fiber should be present in the diet.
There must be a lot of trace elements in the consumed products.
4. It is necessary to diversify the food at the expense of the highest possible range of products.
5. A certain power mode should be set-at least 4-5 times a day at the same time.
6. Before exercise, you must additionally eat foods that contain carbohydrates.
7. In an adult, a daily diet should contain at least 90 g of protein, up to 70-75 g of fat. The amount of carbohydrates must be agreed with the doctor, usually 200-300 g.
8. The diet should be strictly individual, depending on the severity of the disease, weight, lifestyle, profession and other factors.
Proper nutrition with diabetes is first of all compliance with single and daily norms of food intake, normal caloric content of products taking into account age, sex, profession, lifestyle and time of year. The daily intake of glucose and sugar should not exceed 100 g, and sweet foods should be taken fractionally, in 3-4 hours.
To reduce hyperglycemia, which always occurs after eating, it is necessary to include in the diet products containing cellulose and pectin substances that slow the absorption of carbohydrates. Many of them are found in vegetables, fruits and berries. Vegetables and fruits are preferably eaten raw in order to avoid the destruction of vitamins found in them.
It should be ensured that the amount of calories entering the body does not exceed the energy expenditure of the organism, since the onset of this imbalance leads to fatness and obesity. After 40 years, every 10 years, the basic metabolism is reduced by about 7.5%, which requires a corresponding reduction in caloric intake. In life, often the opposite happens: with the improvement of well-being, the quality of nutrition rises and physical activity decreases. From this we can conclude - you need to eat less and move more, carefully to ensure that there is no excess of easily digestible carbohydrates j of everyday life and during illness.