Risk factors that accelerate the development of diabetes
Jul 05, 2018
The main factors that accelerate the development of diabetes are: hypodynamia, overeating and obesity, stressful situations, alcohol and smoking.
Hypodinamy - the state of the body, associated with a violation of its functions, and especially the musculoskeletal system due to a decrease in the scope of its activities. It develops in the event that a person leads a sedentary lifestyle, moves little, avoids physical exertion. The body's need for motor activity can vary significantly among different people. It depends on sex, age, way of life, conditions of life and work of this individual. A small motor activity adversely affects the state of health, leading to abnormalities in development and the appearance of the so-called hypodynamia syndrome.
Hypodinamia often occurs in recumbent chronic patients. Researches of scientists have shown, that already after three-four-night stay in bed the working capacity of the person, strength and endurance of his muscles decreases. After a two-month stay in bed, there is a decrease in the indices of dynamic and static strength endurance by 25-50%, the speed of individual movements decreases and their cyclicity is sharply disrupted. All this happens simultaneously with a decrease in the mass and volume of muscles that perform both complex motor acts - running, walking, standing, and elementary movements. Significantly decreases muscle tone, their structure is broken, the transport of substances in muscles and the system of regulation of their activity change, and there are unfavorable changes in muscles at the intracellular and molecular levels.
Restriction of motor activity and decreased muscle function has a negative effect on many body systems, since they are a powerful source providing nutrition for almost all organs and systems: the heart, blood vessels, kidneys, liver, lungs, etc. In hypokinesia, the brain and the centers of nervous regulation also suffer.
To combat hypodynamia should start from a very early age. Expansion of the volume of motor activity in children of the first year of life( daily massage, gymnastics) has a positive impact on all indicators of their development. Preschoolers, regularly engaged in physical exercises, always outrun their peers in the growth of length and body weight, the circumference of the chest and in physical development.
Often the intense training load, irrational regime of the day limits the motor activity of school-age children. This especially affects the formation of the cardiovascular system.
As a result, children complain of general weakness, easily fatigued, worse than their peers, suffer overheating. In modern conditions of life of the adult population, the share of manual labor in production and in everyday life has sharply decreased, the neuropsychic tension of labor has increased, which has led to the global development of hypodynamia among all segments of the population. Water supply, central heating, various household appliances completely transformed physical labor in everyday life, and public and personal transport reduced to a minimum walking distance. In rural areas, physical labor is also gradually replaced by the introduction of small-scale mechanization.
Decreased motor activity in the middle and elderly age accelerates the development of atherosclerosis and, worsening the regulation of the vascular tone, contributes to the violation of cerebral and cardiac circulation. As a result of lack of movement and a sedentary lifestyle, flabbiness and weakness of muscles occur, stoop appears, and the processes of physiological aging accelerate. Most of the disorders that result from insufficient muscle activity are reversible. From them you can get rid of, if you increase the physical stress on the body. It has long been known that hypertension, the incidence of myocardial infarction and angina pectoris are much lower among people engaged in sports and manual labor.
To prevent hypodynamia in daily life, daily morning hygiene gymnastics, physical training and health sports, water procedures help."Escaping from a heart attack" is the task now facing people who are sedentary.
The development of excess body weight and the deposition of excess fat in the subcutaneous tissue basically have two causes - inadequacy and inadequate nutrition.
Excess body weight is the initial form of obesity. Where does the excess mass come from? What is considered its cause?
According to statistics of the World Health Organization, about 20 percent of the population of civilized countries have a weight exceeding normal. The problem of excessive weight in our time is becoming more urgent and begins to pose a threat to people's lives. Only some 100-200 years ago, our ancestors were deeply mistaken, considering completeness as a sign of health. Nowadays, new evaluation criteria have arisen, and we began to understand that getting fat - means getting old. People who are overweight disrupt the normal activity of the cardiovascular system, often develops atherosclerosis, diabetes, hypertension and joint diseases. Overweight, wear out the heart, shortens the life of a person for 15-20 years. Children suffering from this deficiency usually get tired quickly, inattentive at lessons, almost always lag behind in studies. They are concerned about headaches, impaired state of health, pathology in the activity of the musculoskeletal system. The nature of them is usually unstable and pliable, they can not achieve the set goal and in their life they go with the flow, with age they become aware of their dissimilarity in others and experience a feeling of inferiority.
Body mass serves as a relative indicator of a person's physical development and depends on both the type of physique and sex and age. Everyone should know their normal mass and strive not to go too far from its average values. The most easily accessible method for determining the normal weight is the following: by subtracting the figure 100 from its height, you will get your optimal weight. If the weight exceeds the norm by seven percent, then it is already overweight and should be disposed of. If the body weight exceeds the norm by 25-30% - this is obesity.
There are two forms of overweight. In the primary form, the accumulation of fat in the body is not associated with any diseases, but is a consequence of external influences. This is the so-called "obesity from laziness", which affects up to 70% of all complete people.
Secondary form of fat metabolism disorder is much less common and is associated mainly with endocrine disorders. But even with this form, there is usually an excessive intake of food.
In the development of excess body weight, the leading factor is neither the imbalance due to excessive caloric content of food and insufficient physical activity, so people should take into account energy consumption and food intake to prevent fat accumulation. This accounting( or self-control) is easiest to implement with control weighings. They need to be held at least once a week( athletes spend them every day) and with increasing body weight immediately take action. It should either reduce the intake of energy-intensive food, or increase energy expenditure, that is, balance these processes.
In the development of obesity, hereditary factors also play a role. But if a person adheres to the norm in nutrition, then he can avoid obesity. With age, when the energy expenditure of a person decreases and the metabolism slows down, the body weight begins to grow. Therefore, in the elderly you can not leave from physical work, morning exercises, running and other sports events.
Most often, excessive accumulation of body weight occurs due to disorderly feeding, when the rhythm of food intake is disturbed, when the bulk of nutrients enter the body in the evening, or even at night.
The most rational meal is the four meals a day with the following distribution of the daily ration:
1st breakfast - 30% of daily calorie content
2nd breakfast - 15%
Lunch - 30-35%
Dinner - 15-20%.
The last meal should be no earlier than two or three hours before night sleep. Before going to bed it is very useful to drink a glass of yogurt or curdled milk( people who suffer from constipation, and elderly people in kefir it is desirable to add a tablespoon of sunflower oil).
Obesity is an excess body fat deposition. At present, the number of people suffering from this ailment increases every year. Obesity is more common in women( 1.5-2 times) than in men. In Russia, up to 40% of the population is overweight. The term "overweight" usually refers to a condition where a person's weight exceeds the norm by 10%.And if this percentage is 20-30, then talk about obesity.
Why do we get better? If to answer briefly, then because we do not observe the caloric balance of the body. This means: we consume more calories than is required for energy costs. Unclaimed nutrients remain under the skin and in the internal organs in the form of fat. With a sedentary lifestyle and constant overeating, this stock increases. Body weight is growing. According to scientists, obesity caused by overeating, is about 95% of all cases of significant weight gain. Eating, we do not think that a few extra pieces of bread and a few teaspoons of sugar above the norm will eventually turn into kilograms of excess weight. We are not taught to eat right. And this leads to the fact that we can not deny ourselves the pleasure of intercepting an extra piece without thinking about the consequences.
The body is not fooled, it takes into account every gram, every extra calorie and reacts to it appropriately. After a course of treatment and losing weight, a person feels younger and stronger, but a short time passes, and everything returns to normal because of weakness and laziness.
The percentage of fat people in the countryside was usually always small, because rural work is associated with physical overload. But at the present time, in connection with the mechanization of agriculture, it has increased dramatically. We get fat, because in 40 years we eat the same way as in youth, and we spend much less energy. And this disguised overeating leads to irreversible weight gain. Caloric balance in the body is also violated for another reason. We move little! We do not go in for sports, we throw gymnastic exercises, we do not want to walk once more. So we get fat, and at the same time we lose our health.
The fact that obesity is considered the cause of many diseases - everyone knows. Sclerosis, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, liver and pancreas diseases - all these acquisitions are the result of our careless attitude towards nutrition. According to statistics, if a person's weight exceeds normal by 20%, his life is reduced by 10 years.
The heart muscle, which feeds excess layers of fat in our body, quickly wears out. Hence the full - rapid heart rate, shortness of breath, swelling of the legs, heart attacks.
Diseases of the musculoskeletal system are side effects of obesity. First of all, the spine, joints, and blood supply of the extremities suffer. In obese people, vein dilatation, knee pain, low back, hip joints are often observed. All this results in overload caused by excess weight.
Treatment of obesity is not an easy task. To get rid of superfluous fat layers, accumulating for years, it is necessary to put a lot of effort and work. People are looking for a quick cure, a miracle recipe. But such a recipe does not exist. Treatment should begin with getting rid of entrenched habits, and this requires willpower and perseverance.
Obesity is not treated, it is warned - so doctors say.
Different forms of obesity
Surplus fat on the human body is distributed unevenly. This is determined by the individual characteristics of the body, which forms various types of obesity.
Total obesity. Because of the thick layer of fat, like a blanket covering the figure, it loses its outlines, spreads out. Thick neck, fat back, sharply enlarged mammary glands, large abdomen, heavy buttocks, too wide hips - all this disfigures the figure.
For obesity in the male type, the fat layer is located in the upper half of the body.
People suffering from obesity in the male type, are full-blooded, have increased sweating, have a good appetite. However, with age they develop diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases.
For obesity by female type, the fat layer is located mainly in the lower part of the body: on the abdomen and hips. Women who are obese with a loose type can not boast of good health and a blossoming view. They complain of fast fatigue, insomnia, menstrual disorders, nervousness. Violations of the functions of the nervous system and endocrine glands are the main causes of the onset and development of obesity of loose type.
If we resort to comparative geometry, then all complete women can be divided into three main types:
the first type can be represented as a triangle facing upwards. This includes women with narrow shoulders and chest, with wide hips, representatives of another type can be designated by a triangle facing downward. They are distinguished by broad shoulders, full chest, narrow thighs;
the third type of full women can be designated by two triangles connected by peaks. In other words, they are distinguished by developed shoulders, chest and hips, but they tend to have a narrow waist.
Weight and body dimensions
Doctors recommend weighing on the same scales every day at the same time. The results should be recorded.
Body dimensions are recommended to be taken every week, the results recorded. If from month to month there is even a slight increase in body size with strict adherence to diet, immediately consult a doctor. Perhaps, you develop a disorder of the endocrine glands( diabetes!) Or some other disease.
Tips for those who want to lose weight
1. Limit the consumption of sugar, flour dishes and fats to a minimum.
2. The basis of nutrition should be meat, fruits and vegetables.
3. Eat five times a day: breakfast, lunch, lunch, afternoon snack and dinner.
4. Do not rush while eating. Eat slowly and with appetite - so it's easier to get rid of hunger.
5. The main part of the food is eaten during breakfast and lunch. Supper should be purely symbolic.
6. Do not forget about motor activity. If at work you are mostly sitting, at least part of the way to work and work go on foot.
7. If you adhered to all the previous tips, but did not achieve the desired reduction in body weight, try switching to any of the diets that contribute to a gradual decrease in body weight.
8. If you need to quickly get rid of excess weight, talk with your doctor about which of the diets you can apply.
9. Make a schedule of life and strain your will to observe it.
Small calorie mode
This mode will allow you to lose as many kilograms as you want without fatiguing your body without risking aging( this danger is fraught with rapid weight loss regimens, conducted without medical supervision).
It was developed in America and refined in France by Professor Georges Duchain of the National Institute of Food Hygiene.
The principle of a low-calorie diet is that the body, receiving low amounts of fat and carbohydrates with food, is forced to burn excess fat stored in tissues.
You can compose a food ration according to its
to their tastes, its capabilities and adjust it depending on the form of your obesity.
Scientists believe that the daily calorie content of food can be reduced by two-fifths without any risk to health. This means that a person who has an ideal body weight of 56 kg and who works in a sitting position should receive 2000 calories per day with food.
If his weight exceeds ideal, and he wants to lose weight, then the caloric content of the daily ration should be only three-fifths of 2000 calories, that is 1200 calories. This roughly corresponds to:
200 g of low-fat meat or fish;
40 g of cheese;
300-400 g of green vegetables;
300-400 g of fruit;
475 g of stale bread from wholemeal flour;
300 grams of fresh skimmed milk.
As a seasoning: 10 g of dry yeast, one lemon and a little sugar.
From these foods you can cook countless delicious dishes, make a varied menu for any season.