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  • Lentils useful properties and contraindications

    Lent culinary food( Lens culinaris Medic) - is an annual herbaceous plant, belongs to the family of legumes. The leaf is complex, has paired oval leaves and antennae, the stem is furrowed. Fruits are flattened beans, with disc-like seeds of various colors, depending on the variety. It has been cultivated since ancient times, it was cultivated in the states of the East in prehistoric times. It is believed that the culture of lentils originated in the mountainous regions of South-West Asia, from there it spread to the west - to Ethiopia with the neighboring states and to the Mediterranean - Spain, Greece, Portugal.

    There are about 10 types of lentils that are common in the Mediterranean, the Caucasus, and Central Asia. It is considered one of the most ancient cultivated plants cultivated by humans since the Neolithic period.

    Scientists suggest that lentils were brought to Egypt by Arabs, Jews and other tribes from the Euphrates river basin even during the dynasties of the pharaohs( ancient Egyptian kings), that is, many centuries before our era. The scientists of antiquity Herodotus and Theophrastus in their works noted that among the ancient Egyptians lentils were one of the favorite dishes. In difficult years of droughts and inexpensive Egyptians added lentil flour to barley and baked bread from this mixture. In the Roman era( IV century AD), lentils were an important object of trade between states. In those days, lentils were considered not only food, but also medicinal crops.

    From Italy lentils got to Germany, and then to Lithuanians and Slavs. In literary sources, lentil is mentioned in Rus as a culture only in the 10th-12th centuries of our era, but as a food product of wide application-only in the 15th century.

    Lentil seeds are characterized by easy digestion, good taste qualities, easy digestibility by the body. In seeds of lentils, 60% of valuable protein is more than in meat. In addition, they contain more than 6% starch, carbohydrates, fiber, mineral salts.

    In the 1st-5th centuries AD, a drug was prepared from it, advertised as a universal remedy for all sorts of diseases. This drug was called "Revalenta arabica" - "Arabian firming". The healing properties of lentils were, of course, exaggerated. But the presence in the lentil grain of a large number of proteins, starch and other useful substances, indeed, could have a healing effect, especially on depleted patients.

    The table shows the content of nutrients( calories, proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals) per 100 g of edible part.
    Caloric value 295 kcal
    Proteins 24 g
    Fats 1,5 g
    Carbohydrates 46,3
    Dietary Fibers 11.5 g
    Water 14 g
    Mono and disaccharides 2.9 g
    Starch 43.4 g
    Ash 2,7g
    Saturated fatty acids 0.5 g

    Vitamins
    Vitamin PP 1.8 mg
    Beta-carotene 0.03 mg
    Vitamin A( RE) 5 μg
    Vitamin B1( thiamine) 0.5 mg
    Vitamin B2( riboflavin)0.21 mg
    Vitamin E( TE) 0.5 mg
    Vitamin PP( Niacin equivalent) 5.5 mg
    Macro Elements
    Calcium 83 mg
    Magnesium 80 mg
    Sodium 55 mg
    Potassium 672 mg
    Phosphorus 390 m
    Chlorine 75 mg
    Sulfur 163 mg

    Micronutrients

    Iron 11.8 mg
    Zinc 2.42 mg
    Iodine 3.5 μg
    Copper 660 μg
    Manganese 1.19 mg
    Selenium 19.6 μg
    Chromium 10.8 μg
    Fluoride 25 μg
    Molybdenum 77.5 μg
    Boron 610 μg
    Silicon 80 mg
    Cobalt 11.6 μg
    Aluminum 170 μg
    Nickel 161 μg
    Titanium 300 μg

    Energy value Lentils, the grain is 295 kcal.

    Glass 250 ml = 210 g( 619.5 kcal)
    Glass 200 ml = 170 g( 501.5 kcal)

    The healing properties of lentils are due to the substances that make up its composition. This is iron, folic acid, soluble and insoluble dietary fiber. It facilitates the emptying of the intestines, regulates the sugar content in the blood( which is very important for diabetics), prevents the onset of oncological diseases of the colon and pancreas.

    In lentils there is very little fat, lots of proteins and carbohydrates, lots of thiamine, there are potassium, copper, magnesium, zinc.

    Dishes of lentils are recommended to include in the diet of patients with diabetes several times a week. This greatly increases the protective forces of the body and can serve as one of the measures for the prevention of cancer.

    Soup, various salads, rice porridge and lentils are valuable nutritious and healing dishes.

    Lentil flour is a part of many medicines used in folk medicine. A mixture of this flour with butter is treated with burns, and with egg yolk - wounds. Decoction of lentils is recommended for use in renal stone disease.

    In European countries, lentils are widely known as food and feed products. To bake the highest grades of biscuits and biscuits, lentil flour is added to the dough. In France, lentil flour is used to make cheap varieties of chocolates and chocolate, and in Germany it is added to sausage stuffing.

    In Saxony and Thuringia, lentils are still revered by the Germans as a festive dish and served on Christmas Eve before Christmas. In England, lentil dishes are eaten during fasting, probably, hence the botanical name "lentil" from the English "lent", which means "fasting." Lentil soup was the usual food in posts and in pre-revolutionary Russia.a lot of tasty and nutritious lentil dishes

    2 glasses of lentils washed, put in a pot, add salt, add a clove of garlic, 1 finely chopped onion, pour in water and boil. Lit the lentil on a sieve, then serve with butter and vinegar.transferrinse well, pour 2 cups of cold water and leave to swell for 3-4 hours, then drain the water, pour fresh water and cook.) Before ready to put salt, as soon as the lentils become soft, drain the remaining water, put butter and serveOn a table, lentils can also be filled with toasted onion, for this, one medium-sized onion should be finely chopped and fried with a small amount of butter. The rest of the oil should be put directly into the lentils. Lentils in tomatoes and onions are cooked in the same way, only 3/4 tablespoons of tomato are added to the toasted onion and boiled. Lentils in sour cream and onions are cooked in the same way as lentils with one onion: half a glass of sour cream is added to toasted onion and allowed to stand. For 1 glass of lentils, you need 2 tablespoons of vegetable oil. Soak the lentils in cold water. Brisket boil with boiling water and cut into thin slices. Then chop the onion and lightly fry it together with the brisket. After that, put lentils and brisket in a saucepan, pour a glass of water or broth, add tomato puree, salt, pepper, bay leaf and, after covering the pan with a lid, stew for 30 minutes. Before serving, ready lentils put on a plate slide and sprinkle with chopped herbs parsley, dill. In the same way, cook lentils with dried apricots.1 cup of lentils requires 150 grams of brisket( or 50 grams of dried apricots), 2 onions, 1 tablespoon of tomato puree( for lentils with dried apricots, add 25 g of walnut and 2-3 tablespoons of vegetable oil).

    Wash the lentils in a scallop, pour water and let stand for 5-6 hours for swelling. Then add the water to the sucker, so that its level is 2 cm above the grain level. Cut fattened edges of fattening eggs and put the lid on. Prepared in this way, the suited egg is put in the oven for 2-3 hours. Ready lentils smell very nice, and there is almost no water in it. Hot lentils mash, add salt or add sugar, mix thoroughly and cool. Cold stuffing is wrapped in dough with a slice of butter. These pies are consumed hot. In the lentil filling you can add vegetable oil, especially good taste provides the oil from hemp seed. When adding vegetable oil pies are delicious and cold.

    2-4 servings of

    175 g of soaked 2 hours brown or green lentils, 1 crushed garlic clove, 175 g grated cheese "Cheddar", 1 tbsp.spoon of tomato ketchup, 2 tbsp.spoons of sweet brine, a little soy sauce, salt and freshly ground black pepper.

    Drain the water, put the lentils in a pot of drinking water, bring to a boil and cook with a slight boil for about 45 minutes before boiling. Drain the water, add the garlic, almost all the cheese, ketchup, brine, soy sauce and salt with pepper. Pour into a greased high-heat dish and sprinkle with the remaining cheese. Bake in a preheated oven at 200 ° C for 20 minutes until golden brown.

    4 servings of

    225 grams of green lentils, 1 carrot, diced,

    50 g of long grain rice, 2 beaten eggs, 2 cloves of chopped garlic, 2 tbsp.spoons of wholemeal flour, salt and freshly ground black pepper, 3 tbsp.spoons of seasoned flour, oil for frying, 4 heads of chicory( Belgian endive), 3 tbsp.tablespoons olive oil, 1 tbsp.spoon of wine vinegar, 1 teaspoon of English mustard, 2 tbsp.spoons of chopped parsley.

    Cook the lentils, carrots and onions in salted water for 25 minutes. Drain the water and cook the mashed potatoes in a mixer or vegetable cutter. Meanwhile, cook the rice for 20 minutes. Drain and add in the puree of lentil. Combine with eggs, garlic and wholemeal. Add spices to taste. Blend 4 pies from the mixture. Roll in flavored flour. Fry for 3 minutes on both sides until golden brown. Cut the chicory into thin layers. Wash and carefully remove water. Stir olive oil, vinegar and mustard and sprinkle on chicory. For one serving, serve one lentil cake.

    It is not recommended to eat lentils for diseases of the genitourinary system, urine acid diathesis. Various diseases of the joints, which are subject to the body completely regardless of the age of the person, are also considered a contraindication to the inclusion in the diet of lentils.

    Use caution when consuming food for gout. All beans, beans, peas, lentils, can cause belching, the appearance of gases and discomfort in the stomach. Before eating them, you need to eat some salad, made from vegetables, with the obligatory addition of fresh herbs, for example, coriander, to drink green tea. These products effectively resist the possible unpleasant consequences of using lentils.

    Numerous kidney diseases can be considered a serious contraindication of lentils. The harmfulness of legumes, in particular lentils, for the body of some people is the maintenance of a special substance in them that promotes the formation of kidney stones. Undesirable for use by people suffering from diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, cardiovascular system, pancreas and gallbladder. With great care and small doses, it is possible to include lentils in the diet of small children and elderly people. Such contra-indications of lentils are based on the maintenance in it of an excessively high number of purine compounds, which are heavily tolerated by these groups of people.

    Lentils require cooking experience and a long time spent for cooking. After a few undercooked lentils, can cause symptoms of poisoning with legumes. Such symptoms are frequent vomiting, severe headache, slightly jaundiced skin tone, urine brown. The emergence of dangerous symptoms requires timely, qualified medical care.

    A serious contraindication to lentils is a disease like hemorrhoids. In addition, if a person experiences certain difficulties with urination, it is clearly contraindicated to include in the diet food dishes of lentils, other legumes. With frequent use of this legume, a feeling of dryness of the skin may occur, so people who have any problems with skin diseases should first consult a doctor before eating lentils. It is noted that lentils reduce the absorption of many nutrients, in particular calcium, iron, zinc, therefore it is not recommended to eat exclusively lentil only, although it will be desirable to use it three times a week.