How to give the child encyclopedic knowledge
Jun 25, 2018
Undoubtedly, an intelligent person is a man with a broad outlook, who can compare facts, draw conclusions.
Knowledge is based on information, and information is obtained through facts. Each fact represents one bit of information. When such a fact is correctly presented to the child, it can be called a bit of the intellect. This fact will not only contribute to the development of the children's brain, but will also lay the groundwork for all of its future knowledge.
Prepare a calculator - it will surely come in handy!
According to Doman, the expansion of the horizon, the supply of encyclopedic knowledge is also taking place on the system of displaying cards - "bits of intelligence".
These cards contain one bit of information. They are glued on a neat drawing, illustration or picture.
Each card should be dedicated only to one fact. For example, if a crow is depicted on it, then it should only be a crow - without a landscape or any other animals. The image on the card must be perceived in a unique way. If a crow is depicted, then it should be perceived as a crow, and not as a "big black bird."
In cards, an element of novelty is required, that is, they should show something that is not yet known to the child.
The picture on the card can be called an "intelligence bit" only if it meets the following requirements:
• all the details are clearly visible;
• only one item is shown;
• has a special name;
• The pictured item is unfamiliar to your child;
• the card must be large;
• The card must be clean.
In addition, all cards must contain an element of novelty, that is, they must be depicted on something that is still unknown to your child.
Look at the examples of the three cards. Each depicts a bear, but only one of the cards is correct.
The first card shows a charming teddy bear, which has nothing to do with a real bear. This picture is good for illustration of a fairy tale, but absolutely not suitable for obtaining reliable information about an animal.
On the second card the bear is depicted in the background of the landscape. The card contains not only the image of the animal, so it is ambiguous, although under it is written "bear".In addition to the bear, there are other objects depicted.
The third illustration serves as an example of the correct card. The bear is depicted in all details on an empty white background and, except for it, there is nothing else in the picture.
Make sure that you have correctly understood all the requirements for "bit intelligence" cards and only then start to execute this program.
Where better to take material for cards "bit of intellect"?The main source are books, magazines, maps, postcards, guidebooks. What exactly to use is the work of your ingenuity.
You will need: photographs, drawings, postcards, office glue, white cardboard, felt-tip pen, pen and scissors.
If the pattern you want to use for the card has an unsuccessful background( for example, it's too gloomy), cut it out and paste it on a more suitable background. At the same time, remember the fields that create the best contrast and make it easier to perceive.
If a good picture shows several objects, cut them out and paste each on a separate card, make a signature.
Well, finally, before you throw away the already used material, review it carefully - all of a sudden you will need something in the future.
If you have a color printer, you can find pictures on the Internet and print them. Of course, this way of creating benefits is much easier.
The best card size is 28x28 cm. They should be hard enough to be held in one hand and used repeatedly. The produced cards can be laminated. In this case they will be durable.
With a pencil you sign the reverse side of the card( for yourself), make a caption to the image( for the child) with a felt-tip pen.
All cards must be systematized and arranged in sections. For example: birds, musical symbols, pictures, body parts, tools, writers, etc.
One and a half years after the start of your program, you will find that the number of categories has increased, and in some of them, subsections have appeared. Now you have not just a section of "birds", but also subsections "birds of water", "birds of prey", "domestic birds", etc. Your systematization will constantly change and improve. This is necessary in order to meet the growing interests of your child and his ability to find the relationships between sections.
When choosing illustrations for the production of cards, first of all pay attention to the image quality.
Each category must consist of at least 10 cards. The maximum number depends on the interest that the child will show to this section.
CARDS Based on the material selection criteria, it should be obvious to you that any information that can be presented in a clear, discrete and unambiguous form is the "building block" of the intellect, and the cementing solution is the systematization.
A partition is a group of ten or more cards that have something in common. Consider, for example, the section "Birds".
1. Conventional crow
The section can be expanded both by existing birds, and due to the already extinct. Expand this category as much as your own knowledge will allow.
In Doman's methodology, all existing fields of knowledge are divided into ten sections.
To begin with, you should choose in each of these sections one category.
Here are some examples of sorting cards.
To make the right card, you need to do the following.• Learn to distinguish the correct cards "bit of intelligence" from the wrong ones.
• Find sources of materials for them.
• Organize all the material found, choosing from it what you need to make cards.
SECTION CATEGORY SET OF CARDS
Ordinary crow, robin, nightingale, finch, eagle, ostrich, chicken, sparrow, black grouse, heron, etc.
SECTION CATEGORY SET OF CARDS
SECTION CATEGORY SET OF CARDS
Rulers and politicalthe leaders of Russia
Nicholas II, Alexander Nevsky, Stolypin, Alexander I, Lenin, Ivan the Terrible, Peter I, Catherine II, Brezhnev, Kerensky, etc.
Cities of Russia
Moscow, St. Petersburg, Ekaterinburg, Samara, Nizhny NovgorodNovgorod, Yaroslavl, KraiNovosibirsk, Suzdal, Sochi, etc.( postcards with city views)
SECTION CATEGORY SET OF CARDS
Beethoven, Mozart, Tchaikovsky, Bizet, Verdi, Kalman, Bach, Chopin, Mussorgsky, Scriabin and(portraits of composers)
The paintings of Van Gogh
• Prepare blank pieces for cards from thick white cardboard or similar material measuring 28x28 cm.
• Glue the images and make inscriptions both under them and on the reverse side of the cards.
• Systematize the resulting cards by expanding them into sections.
SET OF CARDS
"Schoolboy", "Sunflowers", "Madame Rulin with your child", "Postman Rulin", "Sad old man", "Cafe terrace at night", "Self-portrait", "Gypsy carts", "Church in Auvergne", "Fields with peach trees in bloom", etc.( pictures reproductions)
Structure of the skeleton
SET OF CARDS
Skull, shinbone, scapula, phalanx of the finger, pelvis, ankle, collarbone, ulna, lower jaw, etc.( bone patterns)
Select the category you want withto begin. Sit comfortably in front of the child and happily say: "I want to show you a very interesting birds!" Start demonstrating the cards from a distance of about 35 cm.
The most convenient way is to shift the "deck" from the rear cards forward, calling cards, because you will have time to read the name of the bird, which is written on the back, and you do not have to look at the image itself.
Card display time is 10-15 seconds.1 second - to show the card and 5 seconds to shift.
The first few days you should say: "This bird is called a nightingale," and then you can only pronounce the name "nightingale".
Doman recommends mixing cards after each lesson, so that with a new demonstration their order is already different.
After ten days, when the number of your categories reaches 10, start deleting one card from each category daily and replace them with new ones.
On the average, the training cycle of each card is 30 lessons, as each new card will be shown by you for 10 days three times daily.
When displaying cards, watch your fingers to avoid blocking the image. Take care also of normal lighting.
Do not forget about the voice - the younger the child, the louder and more clearly you should say the names of the cards.
Conduct classes throughout the day, but not in a row, and arranging breaks, during which you do something else. If your child needs to continue the lesson( as a rule, that's the case), say to him: "Well, well, we still work out, but now let's take the table. .."
After each lesson, we need to take a break, promising to return to yourcards a bit later.
For classes, choose only the time when your child is fresh, cheerful and cheerful.
The intensity of the lessons will depend on the quality of the cards you have made. If they are large, with clear images and have fields, then you can be sure that the child will have time to consider and remember everything.
The basic Doman rule for displaying cards is 1 second per 1 card. In addition, do not forget that you should always show your child a little less cards than he wants to see. For example, if you have already realized that after fifteen cards, he may become distracted, show only ten. If ten are many for him, show five.
His attention plays a very important role in the learning and perception of new information, so your classes should be held with full enthusiasm from both sides, be bright, energetic, well-organized.
Begin by demonstrating three different categories of 10 cards each. During one - show each category 3 times. Gradually, you can add more and more categories until their daily number reaches 12. Total class time during the day:
12 categories x 3 times x 10 seconds = 6 minutes.
After ten days, when the number of categories reaches 10, start deleting one card from each category daily and replace them with new ones. Keep old cards for later use. As a result, every day you will replace ten old cards. But this is the minimum, not the maximum!
If the kid is good at learning new cards and you have the opportunity to make them, enter more new cards. Simply in this case, you will have to search more actively for new material and quickly make new cards - your child's ability to absorb knowledge is huge!
Do not show the card if the child is distracted or has no interest in them. It is better to return to the occupation later than force or persuasion to force anything to do.
When you deplete all the stocks of new cards in any category, replace it entirely by entering a new one. Later, when you have new cards belonging to the old category, you can return to it again. In any case, keep all the old cards, as they will be required in the future.
You need to be well versed in all the subtleties of the learning process. It is up to you to determine and know exactly how many times you can show a new card before it becomes old and uninteresting for the child. Such knowledge is simply necessary for the constant updating of information.
The average training cycle of each card is thirty lessons, as each new card will be shown by you for 10 days three times daily. However, if you are vigorously performing this program for 3-6 months, you will find that a thirty-fold display of one card is too much. Why? It's simple: you have already significantly succeeded in developing visual analyzers of the child, so now each card can be shown 3 times a day for all 5 days, that is, only 15 times. And still the child will remember it perfectly.
This acceleration is usually achieved a few months after the start of the program. After starting, ask yourself often: "Is it time for me to shorten the training cycle of one card?"
At some point you will see that it is enough to show new cards only 1-2 times, because the child quickly and easily learns the material literallythe first time. This is not surprising, because your child's brain is growing and developing every day.
When you have a large systematized material from the "intellect bits" cards, it's time to go further. When your child learns 1000 cards, you can start creating an intellectual program.
While categories provide a general overview of any area of knowledge, the intellectual program allows you to go further, deepening the level of knowledge within each category. Each such program starts with the simplest and ends with complex information. Here is an example of one intellectual program.
SECTION CATEGORY SET OF CARDS
Crows make their ownnests on trees or in bushes.
Crows' nests are made of twigs, laid with grass or wool.
Crows eat insects, seeds, fruits and nuts.
It is also known that crows eat shellfish, carrion, mice, eggs, fish, garbage, putty, rubber, insulating material.
A female crows has one brood of chicks per year.
The voice of a crow is loud, hoarse, completely un-musical. Ravens belong to the family of crows.
The crow's family includes crows, jays and magpies.
Most of the birds in the crows' family mate for life.
Most of the birds in the crow family live in packs and nest in densely populated colonies.
Only in New Zealand and most Pacific islands there are no representatives of the crow family.
The raven family has 103 species, united in 26 genera.
These levels can be more and they are limited only by the amount of modern knowledge that is available in this field.
The purpose of the intellectual program is to establish relations between the categories already studied. For example, "Peter I was born in Moscow."For a child who already knows who Peter I is( the category of "rulers of Russia") and what is Moscow( the category of "cities of Russia"), this will be the most obvious way to link the two categories together.
The more you discover such links between categories, the more interest will grow in it. An intelligent program will help your child to grasp the relationship between the already learned knowledge.
First of all, review all the cards you have already passed and think about the first level of the intellectual program for each of them. You will probably need encyclopedias and dictionaries. Every time you will doubt this or that fact, be sure to look there. Do not tell the child:
"I think it's true."Provide it with only the most reliable and verified information.
There are three ways to compose an intelligent program. The simplest of them is to write all the information on a 12x17 cm card. Five cards can be placed on each card, and then you can read them to your child. For example:
1. Crows build nests on trees and bushes.
2. Crows' nests are made of twigs, laid with grass or wool.
3. Crows eat insects, seeds, fruits and nuts.
4. It is also known that crows eat shellfish, carrion, mice, eggs, fish, garbage, putty, rubber, insulation material.
5. A female crows has one brood of chicks per year.
Another way is to write each sentence on the card in large font. You will also read this sentence aloud, but your child will see what you are reading. This can greatly help him in learning to read.
• The intelligent program must be precise, that is, it should not be based on someone's point of view or any assumptions. For example, "Peter I was a Russian Tsar" - this will be included in your program. But "Peter I caused a lot of evil to Russia" - will not enter, because this is a controversial point of view.
• The intellectual program should be clear, that is, it should be stated so as to exclude any possibility for misunderstanding. For example, "Cheetah is the fastest mammal in the world."This statement is clearly stated and understood unambiguously.
Crows build nests on trees and shrubs
The third way is to make a self-made book of 5-10 pages, where each page will have a separate program. First you read them together, and then your child will read them on their own. Of course, that the font size should match the level of development of your child at the moment.
One lesson should include no more than five programs, and each program must have one level. Reading programs takes longer than regular display of cards, so you take them half as much. You read the child aloud these programs or just give him new information, showing the old card. For example, you show him the already familiar bird cards and give explanations to each of them.
CROWD MALINOVKA ORLA CHICKEN HOLY
Crows build nests on trees and shrubs.
The robins have red breasts and gray wings.
These are birds of prey that hunt other birds.
A chicken is a poultry that can not fly.
The Nightingale is a small, gray, but the most musical bird.
All this will take you 10-15 seconds. If you prefer to use separate sentences written in a larger font, show these sentences, and read them out yourself.
If you prefer a book, sit next to it and read it with the child. Whichever way you choose, do everything quickly and cheerfully.
To organize daily activities, start with 5 categories from 5 programs each. Engage in each category 3 times a day. If the classes are successful and the kid is good at learning the material, you can increase the number of categories at will.
After 5 days, start deleting old programs and replacing them with new ones. And replace all five programs in each category. Thus, each program will "work" 3 times within 5 days, that is, only 15 times. Every 5 days, add at least 25 new programs. If you see that your child learns them faster, then perform the update process, according to its speed.
When you have passed all the programs belonging to this category, replace this category and work with another one.
program levels When you pass all the first level intelligent programs, go to the second level study. Each level requires more and more extensive knowledge than the previous one. Thus, the first-level program contains new information, but in a familiar context. First, use only the child's familiar words and expressions, but as you move forward, move on to using more and more complex ones.
Following this path, your child will constantly receive new information while standing on a solid foundation of understanding. Each step forward is a combination of new information and a child-friendly context. It is a skillful combination of these two elements and will achieve the best results.
Most likely, you are convinced that you can teach your child almost everything in the world. Moreover, it may be that you were interested in some subject, but at one time they could not study it. Now you have a great opportunity to do this with your child. It was not without reason that the wise men said: "Learn - and you will learn!"