• What you need to know the future mother

    Care for the proper development of the child should begin long before his birth. What does a woman who is about to become a mother need to know? How can she organize her life to ensure the health of her future child?

    Pregnancy causes a restructuring of the woman's body, makes him demand higher. In connection with the vigorous growth of the fetus( its mass at the time of birth is 3200-3500 g), the need for a woman in food rises. Proper nutrition of the pregnant woman is of great importance for the birth of a healthy child. Special studies have shown that with poor nutrition, miscarriages, premature births, low birth weight and various health conditions are more common.

    Nutrition during pregnancy should be not so much plentiful as full. According to the Institute of Nutrition of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the Russian Federation, the energy value( caloric content) of food in the first half of pregnancy should be 2500-3000 calories per day, in the second half of 3000-3500 kcal.

    The need for a pregnant woman in a protein is 1.5 g per 1 kg of body weight per day, and with sufficient physical activity up to 2 g. In the second half of pregnancy, the need for protein rises and averages 2 g per 1 kg of body weight. The total amount of protein in the diet of a pregnant woman is 100-120 g per day, 60% of which are proteins of animal origin. To cover this need, the ration of a pregnant woman should include such products as milk, cottage cheese, cheese, eggs, meat, fish.

    Fats in the diet of a pregnant woman should be between 80 and 100 g per day. At the same time, vegetable fat accounts for up to 20% of the total amount of fat, i.e., a day a woman should receive 15-20 g of vegetable oil.

    The need for carbohydrates ranges from 350 to 400 g per day. However, an excess of carbohydrates in a woman's diet leads to increased fat loss and the formation of an excessively large fetus, which poses a certain risk of his trauma during labor, In the second half of pregnancy, the amount of carbohydrates should preferably be limited to 300-400 g per day by reducing the amount of bread consumed, confectioneryand sugar. It should be remembered that with excessive consumption of carbohydrates, the accumulation of fluid in the body increases, allergic reactions may appear.

    Usually a healthy pregnant woman can get her usual food with a certain increase in foods containing high-grade proteins, mainly due to milk and dairy products( kefir, cottage cheese, curdled milk, cheese).To adequately provide the body with mineral salts and vitamins, the need for which during pregnancy increases, it is necessary to actively include in the diet fresh vegetables and fruits, as well as berries and a variety of vegetable greens, especially in the second half of pregnancy.

    According to the recommendations of the Institute of Nutrition of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the Russian Federation, an approximate daily set of products for a woman in the first half of pregnancy can be as follows:

    Meat - 150 g Sugar - 40 g

    Fish - 50 g Rye bread - 150 g

    Egg - 1 pc. Bread wheaten - 150 g

    Milk - 500 ml Cottage cheese - 200 g

    Sour cream - 20 g Butter - 25 g

    Vegetable oil - 20 g Groats and pasta - 60 g

    Vegetables different - 400-500 g Potatoes 150 gFruits - 400-500 g

    In the second half of pregnancy, you should increase the amount of meat to 120 g, fish - up to 100 g, vegetable oil - up to 30 g( by reducing the "portion" of butter to 15 grams per day), somewhat restrict consumptionbread and sugar, while increasing the number of vegetables and fruits.

    Caloric content of the daily ration should be distributed so that in the second half of the day the nutritional load was less. We recommend the following order of distribution of daily calories: breakfast - 30%, lunch - 40%, lunch - 10%, dinner - 20%.The last meal should be 2-3 hours before bedtime and consist mainly of milk and vegetable dishes, which are easier to digest and assimilate. Here is the approximate menu of the pregnant:

    Breakfast - an egg or an omelette, a salad of fresh vegetables, milk porridge or stewed vegetables, bread with cheese, kefir, fresh fruit or berries.

    Lunch - salad of fresh vegetables with greens, borsch vegetarian with sour cream( vegetable soup, soup), stew or boiled fish with potatoes( vegetables), fruit or berry juice.

    Snack - kefir( acidophilus, yogurt), fruit.

    Dinner - curd casserole( syrniki) with sour cream, vinaigrette, fresh fruit, fruit juice( broth of dogrose).

    Of great importance is the whole environment that surrounds the woman who is preparing to become a mother. First of all, factors that adversely affect fetal development should be excluded. These include, first of all, certain working conditions, for example, such as floor vibration, increased magnetic stress, work with chemical and radioactive substances, etc. Given this provision, Soviet legislation provides for the transfer of pregnant women whose work is associated with damaging factors to an easierwork with the preservation of the average wage level. There is a list of jobs and professions where the labor of pregnant women can not be used. Medical workers of women's consultations together with lawyers strictly follow the implementation of this legislation.

    During pregnancy, it is very important to avoid contact with infectious patients, as some diseases( rubella, Botkin's disease, flu, etc.) can lead to fetal damage, especially in the first months of pregnancy, when the embryo's organs and tissues are laid.

    Speaking about damaging factors of the environment, it should be emphasized once again that pregnant women are strictly prohibited from drinking alcohol and smoking. They should not be exposed to so-called passive smoking, that is, to be in a room where they smoke. It is advisable to avoid taking medications, especially those containing alcohol. In general, drugs can only be used if they are prescribed by a doctor under strict medical conditions.

    During pregnancy, a woman needs to strictly follow the rules of personal hygiene. It should be 1-2 times a day to take a hygienic shower( in the morning and at bedtime).Useful lightening measures are useful - wet cool wipes, dousing of feet with cold water, etc. This increases the general tone of the body and prevents colds. If you are addicted to colds, you can recommend 1-2 times a day to rinse your throat and rinse your nose with infusion of herbs( chamomile, mint, sage) at room temperature.

    Special attention should be paid to careful oral care, brush your teeth in the morning and evening, rinse your mouth after each meal in order to prevent damage to the teeth, which is often observed during pregnancy. It is very important to treat sick teeth in a timely manner, avoiding the occurrence of complications in the form of inflammation of the periosteum, pulpitis and other diseases that can cause intrauterine infection of the fetus.

    It is necessary to follow the regular work of the intestines. Pregnancy usually predisposes to constipation, as the enlarged uterus compresses the large intestine. It is necessary to regulate the stool with a diet, eating various vegetables, especially beets, cabbage, rhubarb, as well as fresh fruit( plums, apricots) and prunes. However, you should also make sure that the fruits and fruits used do not cause allergic reactions. With insufficient effectiveness of dietary therapy, it is possible to recommend weakening herbal infusions( laxative collection, senna leaves, etc.).It is desirable to abstain from using pharmaceutical laxatives.

    Of great importance is the correct mode of the pregnant woman's day. For an optimal state of health, the expectant mother must strictly observe the daily routine. First of all, you need to take care of a fairly long and full night sleep( at least 8-9 hours).The food should be regular, at certain times of the day. Very useful training physical education, including the implementation of special physical exercises, the complexes of which can be obtained in the women's consultation at the same time with the advice of a physician and methodologist for exercise therapy. It is absolutely necessary for a pregnant woman to walk outdoors for at least 2 hours daily, while avoiding being exposed to direct sunlight.

    During pregnancy it is useful to train yourself to get up early, because after the birth of a child the woman will have to do it. After all, children throughout the first year of life wake up very early, and the mother needs to feed the child during these hours and perform the necessary hygienic procedures. If at the time of the birth of the baby she is not used to getting up early, then such a regime will seem difficult for her.

    A woman who is preparing to become a mother must be in emotional comfort. Tranquility, balance of the nervous system, positive emotional mood are the condition conducive to the birth of a healthy baby. Negative emotions, disturbances, and anxieties adversely affect the fetus( its movements are increased, the frequency of heartbeat changes), and the child can be born with increased nervous excitability. Therefore, relatives and friends need to treat the future mother especially carefully and carefully, create a quiet environment for her in the family, help them observe the correct mode of work and rest, and follow all the advice of a doctor.

    However, it should be noted that the pregnant woman should be active enough, move a lot, especially in the open air, perform light physical work, but do not overwork. Positive impact on the psyche of a woman, and therefore, on the child is listening to melodic, not very loud music.

    At the first sign of pregnancy, a woman should register with a woman's consultation. An early appeal to an obstetrician-gynecologist is necessary in order to once again check your health, get the necessary advice and medical appointments, prevent complications of pregnancy, and in case of their development ensure timely treatment. All this will be the key to a successful outcome of childbirth and the birth of a healthy child.

    The main and most pronounced feature of child development during early childhood is the rapid growth and development of all organs and.systems.

    A preterm child at birth usually has a body length of 49-51 cm ^ body weight of 3200-3500 g. For the first 3 months of life these indices increase on average by 9 cm and 2100-2400 g. Then the growth rates somewhat slow down, in the second quarterbody length increases by 6-7 cm, for the third - by 5.5 cm, for the fourth - by 4.5 cm;weight of the body by 2100, 1650 and 1200, respectively. Thus, during the first year of life the child on average grows by 25-27 cm, in the body weight adds from 7100 to 7200 g, which is more than 2 times the body weight at birth.

    In order to determine whether a child develops normally during the first year of life, it is necessary to add to the parameters at birth the mean values ​​of their growth for the lived period of

    . Further, the rate of increase in length and body weight is further slowed down: in the second year of life, the child grows by 10-11 cm, the body weight increases by 2.5-3 kg, for the third year of life these figures are respectively 7-8 cm and 2 kg

    In the first months and years of the child's life there is an intensive development of the central nervous system, forming and perfectingtvuyutsya various movements arise and fixed core skills and habits.

    It is very important to know the patterns of the child's development, his age opportunities in order to help him in time to master this or that skill.

    At the age of 1 month the child is already holding his head well, reacting to sounds, smiling;at 6 months he independently turns from back to belly and back, begins to crawl, utters individual syllables, recognizes relatives. A year-old child usually starts walking without support, pronounces 10-12 words, knows how to drink from a cup, tries to eat by his own spoon. By the age of 3, the toddler freely possesses various types of movements - he walks well, runs, jumps, acquires rather complex skills - eats, clothes himself, and masters basic hygiene skills. In a three-year-old child, speech becomes much more complicated, a significant supply of ideas accumulates, and a conscious attitude to the surrounding reality is formed.

    The rapid rate of development of a young child determines its high vulnerability. The smaller the child, the easier it is to perceive various diseases and is exposed to adverse environmental influences. On the other hand, many diseases can be prevented through the proper organization of the child's life, educational and health measures. At the same time, it is necessary to take into account the individuality of the baby, the features of his life, the living conditions, the situation in the family, and other circumstances. It is equally important to know the so-called critical periods in the life of the child, when it is most prone to certain harmful factors or negative environmental influences.

    So, by the first critical period, we can refer the period of newborn( before the 1st month), when adaptation takes place, the baby to new conditions of life. At this time, the child is particularly vulnerable, any infection in him can cause a serious general damage to the body. The greatest danger is the transfer of an infant to artificial feeding, which is inappropriate for its age, since the digestive system of the newborn is imperfect.

    For children aged 3 to 6 months, the critical moments are the introduction of complementary feeding, complementary feeding and the provision of preventive vaccinations. It is very important that new types of food meet the physiological capabilities of the child, otherwise he may have not only intestinal disorders, but also allergic diseases.

    In the second half of the child's life, which is characterized by the expansion of motor activity, mastering the skills of independent walking, increasing contacts with older children and adults, special attention should be paid to preventing injuries, to avoid contact with the patient, especially acute respiratory,intestinal infections.

    In the second year of life, many children enter pre-school institutions, so parents need to prepare their son or daughter to stay in the children's team, clearly follow all the doctor's recommendations to facilitate the adaptation of the baby in the new environment.

    The peculiarity of the third year of life is the strong vulnerability of the child's psyche. This manifests itself in violent negative reactions to various changes in living conditions, inadequate pedagogical influences. Children of this age are in great need of contact with adults, attentive and friendly attitude towards them, maintaining a positive emotional tone.