Hyperopia in children: treatment and prevention
Mar 16, 2018
Hyperopia( hypermetropia) is a visual anomaly that marks a shortening of the anteroposterior axis, a small diameter of the cornea and a small anterior chamber of the eyeball. The thickness of the lens, as a rule, does not change.
The image in this case is reproduced not in a specific area of the retina, but is located in the plane behind the retina. Hence, the result is an unclear image, perceived by the retina.
Features of the disease in childhood
The development of hyperopia in children is facilitated by the weakness of the refractive apparatus and( or) the anomaly of the development of the eyeball. With farsightedness, it is shorter than normal. Infants usually have children's farsightedness of about 3 diopters. The child grows, the eyeball grows in size, and the image focuses on the retina.
Sometimes it happens that hypermetropia in children is above 3 diopters. In order to get a clear image, the child has to strain his eyes, make an effort. Initially, the body is able to compensate for such efforts, however, if the time is not taken, then the so-called.spasm of accommodation( prolonged overstrain of the eye muscle).So, often there is a decrease in visual function in the cerebral cortex, as the neural cells do not receive a clear image. Hence, there is no incentive for their proper development.
There is a reduction in visual acuity and amblyopia occurs. This disease develops only in children, because in childhood, the vision system is very vulnerable, so that any negative factor affecting the eyesight can lead to serious disturbances.
Also, with farsightedness in children, approximately 30-40% of cases are marked convergent friendly strabismus.
Hyperopia in children 1 year is usually the age norm and eventually passes. If the condition does not stabilize by the age of 10, then there is a high probability that a special vision correction will be required.
Diagnostic of farsightedness in children
Only a special examination can reveal this disease. Under the medicamental action( atropine), the pupil dilates, the lens relaxes. Thanks to this, the true refraction of the eye is achieved. To identify the slightest changes and deviations in the visual apparatus, a regular visit to the ophthalmologist( once a year, if there are no complaints) is necessary.
Sometimes there are cases when hyperopia in children is extremely difficult to identify, as there are no complaints of visual impairment. Farsightedness of a weak degree can hide behind an ideal, at first glance, vision. In such cases, hypermetropia is compensated by the body, the ability of the eye to accommodation.
If the problem does not appear long enough, the child's condition may worsen. Irritability, worsening of well-being, irritation of the child, complain of headaches. An extremely important point is a competent examination and the appointment of an adequate treatment.
There are three degrees of hyperopia:
- weak - up to 2 diopters;
- average -2 - 5 diopters;
- high - 5 diopters and above.
Principles of treatment of hypermetropia in children
Be sure to begin treatment as early as possible. This will help to prevent the development of complications and helps to speed up recovery of visual function. Farsightedness in children 3 years and older preschool age is corrected by positive lenses even with a weak degree of farsightedness.
Treatment of hyperopia in children 7 years of age and older is done with the use of glasses.
With a high degree of disease, permanent correction with glasses or contact lenses is recommended, the choice of which is wide enough and allows you to always choose the right option. The main thing in this is not to treat the child yourself, but to entrust the decision of this issue to professionals!
Treatment courses are appointed strictly on an individual basis and conducted several times a year, depending on medical indications. The condition and level of modern medicine allow quite successfully to solve the problem of how to treat hyperopia in children. In addition to the use of glasses and lenses, there is also a hardware treatment for pediatric hypermetropia. The principle of the device is based on the action, in which the brain subconsciously reduces periods of non-contrast vision, stimulating the visual function of the cerebral cortex and activating the work of nerve cells in this area.
If glasses are assigned, then they try to use a smaller dioptric power than the existing degree of the disease. This is justified by the fact that children's age allows to stimulate the growth of the eyeball much more efficiently than in adults.
The courses of hardware treatment of infant farsightedness consists of several different methods that are well tolerated by children, painless and playful in nature. The frequency and nature of the methods chosen by the doctor who treats the child.
If the child has in addition to hyperopia there is also a strabismus, treatment courses should be conducted regularly, several times a year, under the control of the child's condition. To the school these children should try to maximize their rehabilitation. Early treatment of this disease will stimulate the growth of the eyeball as quickly and efficiently as possible, which leads to a reduction in the degree of hypermetropia.
Preventing the onset of
It is very important to activate visual functions in time, leading to increased visual acuity and prevention of ocular diseases. There are specially designed sets of hardware procedures that are selected individually, depending on the features of the child's eyes and the existing violation. It is important that most of these techniques are conducted in a game form, which allows them to be used successfully in young children.
Helps improve the metabolic processes of the eye apparatus, remove discomfort and spasm following procedures:
- Laser Therapy.
- Vacuum massage.
- Ultrasound therapy.
There are also a number of general recommendations regarding the prevention of eye diseases. Care should be taken to the health of the child's eyes, pay attention to the organization of the regime of work and rest. We need to ensure that the child is properly sitting while reading and writing, the lighting should be properly selected, it is sufficient to light up the working area.
Do not allow excessive hobby computer and TV, alternate work( reading and writing) with pauses and interruptions. It is desirable to exclude too bright artificial lighting, and, conversely, dim. It is undesirable to combine natural light with artificial lighting.
For schoolchildren, there is also a set of eye exercises that a child can perform independently in school and at home. In the organization of the educational process, it is important to pay close attention to students who have visual problems, to take into account the recommendations of physicians regarding the physical and mental loads for these children. To prevent the occurrence of eye diseases in students as a whole, one should routinely change the places of students( rows) three to four times in the school year.
Also, it is necessary to ensure that the child is sufficiently outdoors, actively moving, rationally eating. Food should fully meet the needs of the child's body in vitamins, minerals and trace elements.
One can not ignore any, even minor, complaints of children about the feeling of visual discomfort, reduced visual acuity, headache. If the disease is identified as early as possible, the chances of restoring vision significantly increase.