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  • Crop rotation and planting with mulching soil

    Crop rotation( annual alternation of crops in the same place) is a mandatory condition for growing strawberries. Experience shows that it is advisable to grow strawberries on the same place for 4 years, including the planting year, receiving from these plants 3 crops.

    Perennial cultivation of strawberries in one place makes special demands for pre-planting soil preparation. On sod-podzolic soils, good yields of strawberries( up to 1 kg / m2) can be obtained if the soil contains 10-15 mg / 100 g of mobile phosphorus and 15-20 mg / 100 g of exchangeable potassium at pH 5.0-5.5.In this case, when preparing the soil for the predecessor, strawberries should be applied uniformly over the entire surface per m2: 8-10 kg of well-decomposed organic fertilizers( manure, humus, compost, etc.), 10-12 g ai.phosphoric and 12-15 g ai.potassium fertilizers, closing when digging the soil by 20-22 cm. On poor soils, it is desirable to pass the crop rotation through sideral steam using "green" fertilizers( pea, mustard, phacelia, lupine and other crops that should be buried in the soil after flowering).

    Directly before planting, strawberries do not make fertilization, soil is dug, carefully removing the rhizomes of perennial weeds( wheatgrass, sow-stand, bindweed, dandelion, etc.).It should be especially emphasized that for strawberries requires a fairly powerful cultivated layer of soil, so it is better to do a double digging, namely: the upper arable layer( 18-20 cm) must be dug with the turn of the formation, and the lower( 15-20 cm) -wash, notmixing the layers.

    Two variants of crop rotation are proposed( Table), in which the precursors of strawberry plants are combined with plant arrangement schemes with one general agro-crop-planting in the mulched soil.

    Intensive strawberry rotations

    Variants

    Areas occupied by crops

    1 year

    2 year

    3 year

    4 year

    5 year

    1

    Onion( on the turnip) + planting of strawberries

    Strawberry 1st year of fruiting + garlic winter *

    Strawberries 2ndyear of fruiting + garlic winter *

    Strawberries of the 3rd year of fruiting + winter rye( siderat)

    , etc.

    2

    Carrots + onion( on the turnip) + planting of strawberries + garlic winter *

    Strawberry 1st year of fruiting + garlic winter *

    Strawberries of the 2nd year of fruiting + garlic a winter*

    Strawberry of the 3rd year of fruiting + winter rye( siderat)

    , etc.

    In the first case, on a site intended for planting Peaks, in spring, the onion is planted on the turnip in the mulch slots in a 3-line scheme in staggered order( the distance between the lines is 15 cm, between the plants in the line 15-20 cm).At the end of July, the onions are harvested and strawberries are planted in all nests. The next year after receiving the first harvest, middle-range bushes are removed, and in winter autumn winter garlic is planted, which is grown for the next 2 years. After the 3rd year of fruiting, the site is freed from strawberries and the area is sown with winter rye( as a sideral culture).

    In the second case, two crops are placed on a single ridge in the spring: in the middle of the 5 cm groove, the carrot is sliced, and in 2 extreme rows, onion is planted into cruciate incisions of mulch. In late July, strawberries are planted in the place of harvested onions, and in winter carrots are replaced by winter garlic. The next three years the ridge is busy, as well as in the first case, strawberries and winter garlic. Winter rotation ripens winter rye to a "green" fertilizer.

    Accepting preplant mulching of soil with any opaque material( dark film, special "protective" paper, roofing paper, oilcloth, dark nonwoven material, etc.) in planting strawberries increases yield by 30-50%, acceleration of ripening of berries by 3-5days and practically excludes laborious work - weeding weeds in the ranks.

    Mulmaterial( 60-100 cm wide) spread on prepared, leveled and well-moistened soil( possible on low ridges), where it is located during all the years of growing strawberries.

    The edges of the strip of mulch should be anchored in one way or another in the soil, so that it does not break with wind. Then, in the mulch, make holes for planting( cross-shaped incisions up to 7 cm) in accordance with the adopted scheme of planting.

    Before planting plants on the mulch, it is necessary to soak the soil in the holes with water from a hose using the hydrodrill method - this will facilitate the planting of the plants in the holes. It is better to plant the seedlings of strawberries, grown in 5-7 cm pots or with a clod of soil.

    For a landing choose a cool overcast( and even rainy) weather. But if it happens that hot sunny weather sets, planted plants for 5-7 days are better to cover with raw grass, sacking, newspapers. This ensures a 100% survival rate of seedlings and plants do not "get sick".

    Between strips of mulch it is possible to spread ribbon of roofing material( or used linoleum) with a width of 30-40 cm for the period from spring to the end of fruiting. This will prevent the growth of weeds in the aisles and reduce the loss of moisture from the soil surface. After the fructification of strawberries, the roofing material must be removed from the rows and covered with 8-10 cm of grass.