• Planting of seedlings

    Before planting, the seedlings of are carefully inspected, diseased and damaged branches and roots are cut to healthy wood, it is impossible to leave broken, frazzled or split roots. The rest of the roots should be preserved, as the more the root tree remains, the longer and branched the better and faster it takes root and starts growing after planting. All work with seedlings

    is recommended at an air temperature above 0 ° C.

    Dried seedlings during transportation are recommended to be placed in a container with water for 1-2 days so that all tissues of the tree are saturated with water and it is easier to transfer the process of planting and survival.

    Before planting, the root system of the seedlings is dipped in a clay-mucky chatterbox( 1 part clay, 2 - Mullein, 5-6 - water).Growth regulators( auxins) contained in manure contribute to the formation and growth of roots. You can prepare a simple soil chatter: pour a small hole( 40 x 40 x 30 cm) excavated in the soil with a loose ground of the upper dark layer of soil and dilute it with water to the consistency of thick sour cream. To stimulate the growth of the root system, a growth regulator, hetero-auxin, is added to the soil bolt. The liquid soil solution applied to the root system provides good contact with the soil in the planting pit, which is very important for the plant. At the bottom of the landing pit, you should pour a mound of soil mixed with fertilizers or compost, put the seedling on a mound and spread all the roots of the plant on it. It's more convenient to make a landing together: one person sets a tree on the north side of the stake, carefully straightens the roots on the mound, the other throws the ground: the upper one, taken from the pit of the pit, the soil layer on the roots, starting from the edges of the pit and carefully sealing it with the foot( putting the heel toThe wall of the pit, and the sock to the seedling).Do this carefully, so as not to cut off the roots of the plant. The soil covered with roots should not contain fertilizers, it can be mixed only with mature compost in a ratio of 3: 1.To ensure that there is no emptiness between the roots, the seedling is shaken. When planting, keep it so that the root neck was 3 to 5 cm above the edge of the pit.

    After planting the tree, a roller is piled on the border of the former pit to form a hole and water the plant( 2-3 buckets of water per tree, regardless of soil moisture andweather).After watering, the tree together with the soil will settle, and the root neck will remain at the level of the soil in the garden. Seedling is tied to the cola with a soft twine or other material, the places of contact of the twine with the stem and branches are isolated by placing pieces of rubber to prevent ingrowth into the bark. The next day after planting, rinses and a trickle circle fall asleep, mulch with badly decomposed litter manure, raw unripe compost or humus( layer thickness up to

    10 cm).In dry weather, the plants are watered every 10-15 days.

    Rules for planting seedlings

    Buy seedlings only in specialized farms.

    Do not allow the seedlings to dry out, put the plant in a container of water for 1-2 days before planting.

    Broken branches to cut.

    Cut damaged roots to healthy tissues.

    Before planting the roots, stimulate them by dipping them into a clay-dung moulder or a soil mash with a growth stimulant.

    Roots evenly distributed in the landing pit, not allowing them to break and twist.

    When filling, do not allow cavities between the roots, compact the soil, so that the tree is firmly held in the ground.

    Do not cover the root collar.

    Seal the soil gently, avoiding the breaking of the roots.

    Tie a seedling to a cola, placing it on the north side, only with a soft banding material, placing the insulating material in the place of contact with the stem.

    It is impossible to tolerate the ingrowth of the bandage material into the bark, this may cause further wood fractures.

    To form a near-watering irrigation circle, the seedling should be watered abundantly, and the stock circle should be swept up.

    It is important to form a tree trunk of a tree, which, as the tree grows, will grow proportionally in diameter. To protect the roots from freezing in the first winter after planting, especially in dwarf rocks with a root system close to the surface of the soil, before the onset of stable frosts, the near-bottom circle is warmed with peat, lapnik or other material.

    Time after planting,

    Drilling diameter


    circles, m



    and 3-4









    4 & gt; 5

    Influence of environmental factors on the development of plants

    Growth and development of plants are related to environmental conditions, the main ones being heat, light, water, air and nutrients. Only in the presence of all these factors and their optimal combination plants can grow and develop normally. Therefore, it is necessary to know the role of each factor in the life of cultures in order to be able to manage them.


    Heat affects all chemical transformations and movements of substances both in the plant and in the soil, at the beginning and duration of phenological phases and vegetation in general. For growth, development and formation of a productive part of fruit and berry, a certain temperature regime is necessary. In relation to heat, fruit-berry plants are conventionally divided into:

    very thermophilic( citrus, peach, walnut, apricot, persimmon and grapes);

    thermophilic( cherry, pear, plum, cherry, apple tree);

    is less thermophilic( gooseberries, currants, car and strawberries).

    The lack of heat in certain years depresses vegetative growth, worsens the process of pollination and fertilization of flowers, reduces the yield and quality of the fruit, tightens the vegetation and worsens the preparedness of plants for the winter.

    Fruit and berry plants also react unequally to the duration of the warm period. With a prolonged drop in temperature, the vegetative period increases, the growth of shoots and the ripening of the fruit slows down and, as a rule, their quality deteriorates. The need for plants in the warmth in different phases of vegetation is not the same. Spring growth of the roots of the talon begins when the soil temperature reaches 4-5 ° C, pears - 6-7, cherries - b ° ​​C.For active root growth, a higher soil temperature is required, from 8 to 20 ° C.With a marked increase or decrease in soil temperature, root growth is suspended. For the growth of the above-ground parts of fruit plants, a rather high air temperature is necessary. If the buds swelling in apple and other plants begins at 5 ° C, then their opening and growth of shoots - at an air temperature above 10 ° C.For normal flowering, pollination and fertilization, plants need a temperature of 15-20 ° C.At a low temperature of air, the pollen caught on the stigma does not germinate and fertilization does not occur.

    Early autumn and late spring frosts, severe frosts and deep winter thaws often cause damage to individual tissues, organs and parts of fruit trees, and sometimes their death.

    The excess heat is not always useful and during the growing season. The increased temperature stops the growth of the root and aboveground systems, speeds up the flowering process, causes fetal anomalies, etc.

    The temperature regime plays an important role in the period of relative dormancy. In autumn and early winter at 0-2 ° C, the roots still absorb nutrients from the soil, synthesis of organic compounds occurs in their tissues, and deposition of reserve substances continues in the aerial part. The formation of the fetal kidneys, which began in June-July, continues under favorable conditions in the autumn, and the buds of flowering buds hibernate more developed. Dangerous to fruit plants very low temperatures in winter. The root system is most sensitive to frost.

    Roots of dwarf apple rootstocks, as well as strawberries, die at soil temperature -8-10 ° C, and the roots of wild apple tree seedlings and seedlings of Antonovka common at -14 ° C.

    The root system is especially affected in snowless winters, and also after dry summers andautumn.

    In severe frosts, the bark and wood are damaged especially in the forks of trees and at the base of the boles, since in their tissues physiological processes and preparations for the period of deep dormancy are later completed. Often, plants are damaged by frost at the end of winter and early in spring( February-March).

    During this period, shows sharp temperature changes: from -10-20 at night to -5-10 ° C in the daytime. Daytime positive temperatures contribute to the beginning of vegetation, so the tissues come out of dormancy, lose their hardening and lose the ability to withstand the night frost. Under such conditions, the bark of the bunches from sunburn, as well as

    flowering buds, especially in stone fruits( plum, cherry, cherry).Very dangerous late spring frosts, coincide with the phase of mass flowering of trees and shrubs. The stamens, pistils and ovules are very sensitive to low temperatures. At a temperature of -1 to 1.5 ° C, stigmas and ovules of plum and cherry die, and at -2 ° C - young apple tree ovaries.

    Different winter hardiness has separate parts of the fruit tree: the aerial part is more winter hardy than the root system;Growth buds are more resistant to low temperatures than flowering buds. In turn, flowering buds of stone fruit plants are more sensitive to frosts than seeds.

    In the mid-zone conditions, the air temperature in winter usually does not drop below the level dangerous for fruit plants, and the vegetation period has a favorable temperature regime, and is quite long. The possibility of growing breeds and varieties in specific areas is determined by the sum of the biologically active temperatures and winter conditions, which should be strictly taken into account in the development of breed-grade zoning. Different breeds and even varieties of the same breed have a different degree of winter hardiness. Resistance to low temperatures, which is determined by the frost and winter hardiness of plants, is the main limiting factor in the cultivation of individual breeds and varieties in the mid-zone conditions.