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  • Walnut cultivation

    Family Nuts - Juglandaceae

    The generic name comes from the Latin words - Jovis glans - the acorn of Jupiter. Specific definition means "royal," "royal," "magnificent."

    Botanical Description of .Deciduous tree, height up to 30-35 m. The trunk is straight, straight, with a highly raised small crown. For stand-alone trees growing in vacant places, a powerful Crown develops, in shape resembling a tent. The bark of young plants is light gray or grayish-brown, with age it takes on a brown or almost black color, and later deep furrows and cracks appear. In young shoots, the core is empty, with septa.

    Leaves alternate, odd-pinnate, 20-40 cm in length, consist of 5-11 leaves of ovoid or elliptical shape with slightly pointed apex. The top leaf is larger than the others. In adult plants leaves are entire, in young plants - rarely-toothed. Young leaves are almost pink, pubescent, in the summer they become dark green on top, shiny, from below lighter, with a matte surface. In the corners of the veins there are bearded hairs. When rubbing the leaves, a pleasant, peculiar odor is felt. In autumn the leaves turn yellow or brown and fall off.

    Walnut blooms at the beginning of the leaf blossom. Staminate flowers on shoots of the last year are collected in earrings. Pestle flowers are 2-4 on tops of shoots. They are naked. Pestles with two fluffy red stigmas. Fruits - drupes, with fleshy dark green pericarp, spherical, elliptical, ovate, obovate or pear-shaped. When maturing, the drupes dry up and crack, releasing the bones, which are called nuts. In some trees, drupes fall to the ground and only after the impact a bone( nut) is separated.

    Flowering of trees - in May. Fruits ripen in late August or early September.

    The fruiting begins at the walnut at the age of 10-12 years, reaching a maximum in 30-40-year-old trees, which then bear fruit for many years until old age( plants live 300-400 years).

    Geographical distribution. In the wild, walnut trees grow in Central Asia( along the southern slopes of the Fergana, Chatkal and Hissar ranges).They grow in the southern part of the Balkan Peninsula, Iran, Afghanistan, Korea, Japan, are often found in the Himalayas.

    The main massifs of wild trees are located at an altitude of 1100-2000 m above sea level.

    Widely cultivated in the Kyrgyz, Uzbek and Tajik SSR, southwestern Kazakhstan, the North Caucasus and Transcaucasia, the Moldavian and Ukrainian SSR.In the BSSR there are individual walnut trees, but they are often affected by frost;fruit only in the southern and south-western regions of the republic.

    In Belarus, the Manchurian walnut Juglans mandschurica Maxim, which is frost-resistant, is often found in culture. Leaflets are unequal at the base with a pointed tip. The stone is solid with thick walls and poorly separated seed kernels, which taste does not differ from the walnut. Plantings of this species often produce forest ranges.

    Collection and drying. Prepare leaves, unripe fruits and pericarp.

    Leaves cautiously tear off or break off at the end of May and June, when they already have their characteristic sizes and a pleasant balsamic flavor. The collection is carried out in dry weather, after the dew has dried. Leaflets are torn off the central petiole and dried in attics with good ventilation, spreading the raw materials in a thin layer onto paper or cloth. In the southern regions, solar drying is also permissible.

    Medicinal raw materials .The walnut leaf - Folium, Juglandis is a separate leaflet up to 15 cm long and up to 6 cm wide. The odor is peculiar, aromatic, and bitter-astringent.

    OST NCVT 7916 allows: moisture not more than 13%;browned and blackened leaves no more than 5%;other parts of the walnut plant not more than 5%;crushed leaves passing through a sieve with a hole diameter of 3 mm, not more than 3%;organic and mineral impurities not more than 0.5%.

    The dried raw material is packed in 50 kg bales, which are stored on shelves( podtovarnikah) in dry, well-ventilated warehouses.

    Unripe fruit is used fresh. They are collected when neodrevesnevshie bones are still easily cut with a knife. The fruits are soaked in lime water( to reduce bitterness), washed with running water, and then used to cook jam, which also has a curative effect.

    Along with the walnut, you can also harvest leaves, unripe fruit and the pericarp of the Manchurian nut.

    Chemical composition. Leaves and pericots of walnut and Manchurian nut are rich in ascorbic acid - up to 3%, carotene( more than 30 mg / 100 g), flavonoides( mainly quercetin and kaempferol derivatives) and tannins. The aroma of the leaves is caused by essential oil( 0.06%).Also found are alkaloids serotonin and nicotine( the total amount of which reaches 0.03%).Caffeic acid, vitamins B, and E, microelements and other biologically active substances were found.

    Nut kernels contain 52-78% fatty oil, 9-20% protein and 13-20% carbohydrates, which is a very valuable food product. Fatty nut oil is rich in unsaturated fatty acids, which are of great importance in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis, liver diseases, etc. In addition, it, together with fiber improves intestinal motility, has a mild laxative effect. Microelements cobalt and iron, containing "in nuts, determine their therapeutic effect with anemia.

    Action and application. Green jams produce jam rich in vitamin C. The leaves have anti-inflammatory and wound-healing properties, which is why they are often used in the treatment of furunculosis and long-lasting non-healing ulcers. Prepare water infusions, decoctions or ointment with an oil extract of leaves( 15 g. Of dry crushed leaves pour 100 g of refined sunflower oil, insist with frequent stirring for 7 days, after which it is heated in a boiling water bath for three hours, filtered through cheesecloth, then again bring to a boil, boil for at least half an hour, mixed with 15 g of beeswax and stir until completely cooled).

    In folk medicine, infusion of walnut leaves is prescribed inside with scrofula and rickets( 1-2 teaspoons of dry leaves per glass of boiling water, insist until cooled, take 1/2 cup 3 times a day).

    Infusions of leaves are consumed inside also with atherosclerosis( especially with sclerosis of cerebral vessels), increased fragility of blood vessels and bleeding. It is proved that infusions, decoctions and extracts of leaves lower the level of sugar in the blood, in connection with which they can serve as an auxiliary drug in diabetes mellitus. It must be remembered, however, that the preparations of the leaves and the pericarp of the nut increase the coagulation capacity of the blood, in connection with which their administration is contraindicated to some patients. It should be emphasized that the infusion also has a fixing effect. Broths of leaves( 4 tablespoons of crushed dry leaves pour 500 ml of water, boil for 15 minutes) in the form of lotions have a good therapeutic effect for eczema, lichen, acne. They are also used for rinsing with stomatitis, gingivitis, loosening of the gums, paradontosis, candidiasis.

    Due to the high content of unsaturated fatty acids, nuts with a systematic use in food have a very positive effect in atherosclerosis, as well as hepatitis and other liver diseases. They are very useful in the decline of nutrition, since they are rich in fatty oil and protein.

    It is noted that the seed kernels have a gentle laxative effect( VI Popov).With constipation, it is enough to eat 5-6 nuts at night to cause bowel evacuation.

    According to the Azerbaijani researchers A. N. Gyulakhmetov, A. Kh. Rakhimova, L. B. Ismailova and E. G. Musabekova, the alcoholic tincture of lacunae( "partitions") of walnut( 1: 5) has a therapeutic effect with the euthyroid form of diffusegoiter and mild form of thyrotoxicosis.

    Requirements:

    Walnut - a warm and hygrophilous culture that can develop and produce fruits exclusively in the southern warm regions, prefers wet places. It grows well and fructifies there, where the average annual air temperature is 8-10 ° C, and the average monthly temperature of the warmest month is 20-25 ° C.

    It should be remembered that walnut is a thermophilic crop, requiring a lot of heat, sun and high average annual air temperature, so in the middle band the fruits of the walnut do not ripen.

    Forming the crown of a walnut tree

    1. The seedlings of the walnut are cut short, leaving only 2 buds, which makes the height of the 20-30 cm above the soil level. During the post-planting cut, it is necessary to remove the stump that occurs near the site of vaccination and can be quite abundant.

    2. Of the left kidneys, two shoots develop, one of which must be removed. To bookmark the crown, choose a stronger and well located shoot with a more obtuse angle of retreat, the second shoot cut to the ring.

    3. A new tree trunk is formed from the left strong branch, which should be no more than 1 - 10 m in height. As the shoots grow on the left branch, they begin to form the crown of the tree, choosing for this shoots with good separation angles. When the crown is normalized, 3 branches of with spacing of 10-25 cm are left in the tier, 2-3 additional single branches of

    are added above this layer. Ingredients: nut kernel contains fats, proteins, carbohydrates, mineral salts, vitamins A, B, C,E and R.

    Planting: saplings are planted at a distance of 10 x 10 m, followed by thinning. The walnut is planted most often as two- or three-year-old seedlings without a developed crown, most often in the spring, so that in the winter during the autumn planting their crowns do not freeze. If the planting of the seedling is made to a permanent place, and the height of its trunk is still insufficient, the stem is lengthened in the first year of planting due to an escape from the terminal kidney. The remaining buds at the beginning of their blooming are removed or, the stem is still weak, leaving short lateral overgrown branches that are carved in mid-August.

    It is possible to grow walnuts and straight hair. For this, 5-6 fruits are planted on a well-wrecked site to a depth of 10 cm, treated with special means against pests. From the risen plants leave the best, the strongest. This plant forms a rod root deeply penetrating into the earth, which extracts the necessary moisture and nutrients from the residual depth.

    A large number of walnut varieties are known and widely cultivated - Krasnodar, Kairovsky, Pelan, Adil, Dawn of the East, Breeder and Dessert.

    Care : Regular moistening of the soil, but you can not tolerate moisture stagnation. The tree is strongly layered, therefore it requires a systematic replenishment of the nutrient supply

    The need for after-planting of the walnut seedling

    If it is not post-planted, the seedling will remain weak and develop several shoots with a sharp whip at the top. Forming the crown with this arrangement of branches will subsequently prove extremely difficult, if not impossible at all. Crowns of trees that have not undergone post-planting pruning, even after many years can remain underdeveloped due to the introduction of mineral and organic fertilizers.

    It is necessary to monitor the acidity level of the soil, which should range from neutral to slightly alkaline. The soil in the walnut grove of walnut must be regularly loosened and mulched to preserve soil moisture.

    Pruning: crown of walnut is formed by an improved tiered and altered-leader system. The crown is created on the stem with a maximum height of 1 to 1.5 m. It is important that the height of the stem is as small as possible. After planting the walnut seedlings in the second year, during the bud blossoming, the tree is cut to 2 kidneys, one of which will be used as a reserve one. The one-year-old shoot that grew from it is cut almost immediately, leaving only one annual shoot. If the annual shoot does not reach a length of at least 60 cm in the second year, it is shortened again to 2 kidneys in the spring in the spring, proceeding in the same way as in the previous year. After this shoots, the crowns, as a rule, reach the required length and in the future they are no longer shortened. After the formation of the crown, pruning is usually not needed. Every 2-3 years it is necessary to cut out dry and too densely growing branches, which supports the most favorable lighting in the crown. The walnut trees have a high shoot-forming ability, easily tolerate the rejuvenation of crowns and are quickly restored even after the winter frost.

    Usage: core is very nutritious, used for food in fresh form, and also as raw materials in the confectionery industry for making halva and other oriental sweets. Of green fruits, jam, pickles, medicines, vitamins are prepared. Due to the high content of protein and nutrients and compounds, walnuts are prescribed to people weakened by diseases, suffering from avitaminosis, loss of strength and general weakening of the body. Nut butter is used for food, for the best grades of paints, soaps, varnishes, carcasses, for obtaining essential oils. Cake - a high-nutritional feed for livestock and poultry. Of the leaves, bark of the trunk and roots are very strong black and brown paint for tissues, wood and hair;from the shell of nuts - tannins.

    Take 1 glass of peeled walnut kernels, raisins, dried apricots and finely grate or pass through a meat grinder. Mix the resulting mass with honey and take 2 tbsp.l.morning and evening as a preventive measure against spring avitaminosis and colds. Supports the tone of the body's immune system.

    Juglans regia L. Nut can be grown only in large gardens. Hazel has the property of scaring off insects, and since it likes moisture and nitrogen, it is planted near rural households near manure piles. It cross-pollinated, that is, pollinated by the wind. Growing from the seeds of the fruit, the hazel begins to bear fruit for the 10th year. At the present time cultivated grafted varieties begin to bear fruit for the fourth year after planting( Apollo, Bukhlov, Jupiter, Magdon, Mars, Saturn).Our varieties belong to semi-paper nuts with a thin, but strong shell, they last long and are well cleaned from the shell.

    Fruits - nuts can be collected in two stages of maturity. In June, at a time when you can still pierce the fruit with a needle. At this time of the nuts make jam, liqueurs or sugar. But the main harvest is spent in full maturity, when the green pericarp is bursting and the nut falls out - this happens in September.

    Hazel has a curative effect. Medicinal leaves are considered to contain tannins( 3%), essential oils, a large amount of vitamin C, glycosides, a brown color yuglon, flavonoids. These substances are present in the pericarp. It is used for bleeding, inflammation of the mucous membrane. Leaves reduce blood sugar levels and act as soothing. The kernel of the nut contains up to 60% oil, a little vitamin C, 11-19% protein, sugar, carotene, B vitamins, many minerals, mainly calcium, phosphorus and iron, from trace elements - basic iodine and copper. In the kernel of the nut is very little sodium, so the walnut is suitable for renal patients suffering from gout, suffering from circulatory disorders. Nut should have been included in the menu primarily for mental workers.

    However, it also has great energy value, so it should not be included in the menu of people with excessive weight. Leaves and pericarp are used in pharmacology and cosmetics, the nucleus is used in the food industry. At home, you can dye your hair in a dark brown color. To do this, make a tincture of green pericarp. From unripe fruits prepare compote, liqueur, sugar them. Mature kernels are used in the preparation of desserts and other delicacies.