• Shortening pruning on the kidney

    Sections on the kidney during the formation of the main branches of the crown should be flawless, and the further growth of the branch largely depends on this.

    1. A cut shaggy with scuffed bark, burrs, possible the accumulation of moisture, the penetration of infection, damage to the remaining kidney.

    2. The cut is made too high above the kidney, the escape with further development can deviate considerably

    from the main axis.

    3. The cut is made smoothly, at the right angle, at the optimal distance from the kidney.

    4. The cut is made too close to the kidney, the

    kidney can be clipped, damaged,

    resulting in drying and escape

    will go from another kidney.

    5 - Incision made at wrong angle,

    too long, too close to the kidney

    Kidney pruning rules

    Pruning the buds on the kidney is performed from its base to the top.

    You can not cut too low and close to the kidney, as there is a great risk of damage( pruning) the kidney, after which it will shrink or give a very weak undeveloped gain.

    You can not cut too high and away from the kidney, this can cause the shoot to deviate in an undesirable direction.

    The cut can be made straight, not chamfered 2-3 fingers above the kidney, leaving a spine for the garter of the escaped kidney.

    Cut bevel must be made in the opposite direction from the kidney.

    The cut must be smooth without scoring - burr from the bark, which will interfere with the development of the remaining kidney.

    On an annual shoot, an intensively developing apical bud is usually laid, which will thrive in growth only next year, and a few weak lateral buds. If from these kidneys strong lateral shoots begin to grow, then the apical bud should be removed by trimming the shoot up to the first lateral branch or to the place where the first lateral kidney is located. This method is called pruning before the lateral shoot, which reduces the undesirable stretching of shoots in length, is widely used in pruning stone fruit crops that have virtually no sleeping buds, since the kidneys are not viable and, if not touched, grow dying. Therefore, when pruning fruit branches, they do not touch the bones.

    Pruning with the secateurs

    You can trim any intensity level on the kidney with a pruner. The pruner should be placed opposite the kidney obliquely in relation to the branch, as a result of the cut, no gaps, scrapings of the cortex or spines should be formed, which become poorly overgrown and injure the shoot of the

    branch branches with well-formed buds, that is, pruned to the lateral shoot. Fruit branches can be shortened to the first young lateral shoot in the case of their strong vertical growth, which will give them a more horizontal position, contributing to the improvement of fruiting. When rejuvenating pruning, it is practiced to shorten the fruit branch to the first lateral young shoot located in its upper part. When pruning, the vegetative leaf bud should not be damaged, otherwise it will not give a new escape.

    If shortening trimming involves deleting part of a branch, results in the entire branch being deleted as a result of , hence the name of this trimming, which also highlights a number of methods. When the crown is formed on the

    The effect of the intensity of the shortening trimming on the sprouting of

    1 .Possible places for pruning on an annual shoot.

    2. Escape, not subjected to pruning, greatly elongates, stretches and forms weak side shoots.

    3. When removing the apical( terminal) kidney weak lateral shoots grow well, and the lengthening of the shoot is insignificant.

    4. Strong shortening pruning to a well developed middle kidney in the middle of the shoot provides powerful strand formation from the remaining well-developed buds, and the lengthening of the shoot proves to be completely proportional.

    5. Too much shortening trimming to a poorly developed kidney in the lower part of the shoot leads to a slight slight elongation of the shoot, with no side shoots being formed, as there is not a single developed bud capable of escaping

    Cutting technique of the branch of the

    1 .When removing a branch, the secateur should be installed from below under the branch so that its cutting plane is on top, the escaping shoot should be kept by hand.

    2. Cutting is done incorrectly, with this position of the pruner the fabrics are deformed from the top, as a result the place of pruning is poorly overgrown, the tree spends extra forces for healing the wound, the illiterate technique of pruning

    is left to the central conductor, a certain limited number of main branches remains, the others cut out entirely or on the ring, since most branches, apart from those leaving the trunk at an angle of less than 40 °, have a well-marked annular ridge at the base. The cut made on this thickened ring will evenly and quickly overgrow.

    Degree of shortening trimming

    The degree of trimming distinguishes:

    slight shortening, that is, removing 1/4 of the shoot;

    mean shortening, that is, removing 1/3 of the shoot;

    strong shortening, that is, removing 1/2 or more shoots.

    In order for the fruit branches to be strong and healthy, it is necessary to remove too strong one-year shoots-growths to the base, that is, to the place from which they grow. This method is called trimming the ring. Similar is trimming for translation, which is often used to limit the amount of crown, thinning and reducing its height. Pruning a translation is called shortening a perennial branch with a cut over one of its lateral branches. The branch as a whole remains, but its length is shortened and access of light inside the crown opens.

    In this way, the stronger two-year branches are usually removed. At the place where the branches are moved, that is, where the branches intersect, where the branches diverge, it is recommended to leave a short-length protective link when pruning, I finish

    The sawing technique for thick branches

    The branch should be cut from below by one third of its thickness, then make a sawing depth of onethird of the thickness from the top with an offset of 1 cm

    toward the beginning of the branch, after which the branch at this point can be broken off. Then it is necessary to make a clean sawing of the remaining knot, the cut must be smooth and smooth.

    is a weak branch: a spear or a ring,

    . When forming a pyramidal crown, pruning for translation helps to dilute the branches, and the crowns of trees with drooping branches are compact. Pruning for translation is often used to limit the height and width of the crown, as well as to change the orientation of the growth of branches.

    Thanks to the reception of trimming to the last kidney, it is possible to prevent the phenomenon of alternation of the periodicity of fruiting, since all the new fruit branches, ready for fruit formation, will constantly develop in a year.