Feeding of seedlings and trees
Jun 22, 2018
Do I need to make fertilizer when planting a seedlings? It all depends on what kind of soil you have in the place of planting. If this is a good garden land, then do not. If solid sand, then you must make any complex mineral fertilizer, slowly dissolving in water. For an annual seedling it is enough to make, for example, 1 tbsp.spoon "Aquarine" Buyski chemical plant. Or 1 tbsp.a spoonful of granulated, water-insoluble AVA fertilizer. By the way, it will be enough for three years. At worst, you can make 1 tbsp.spoon "Azofoski", even better - "Ecofoski" or "Kemira".
In addition, it is necessary to introduce organic. In sandy or sandy loamy or podzolic soils - 2-3 buckets of overgrown compost or manure iodine is a one-year-old seedling. Under the two-year-old seedling, the dose should be doubled, and under the three-year-old, it should be doubled.
If the soil is peat, then it is better to deoxidize it, and not to apply mineral fertilizers. Organic on such soils in the first year of life of the seedling is also not needed. In clay, as already mentioned above, trees are not planted, but the hill, which will have to be poured over it, must contain both organic and mineral fertilizers.
When and how to feed trees? The basic principle of any feeding is that we endure, then we bring in. That is, how many and which minerals are carried away with the crop, then they should be returned back to the soil. In addition, it is still necessary to provide food for the microorganisms of the soil, that is, to make a subtree of non-interlaced organic matter. The easiest way to do this is to remove nothing from under the tree - fallen foliage, weeded or weed-cut weeds, and if necessary, then fold the compost either into trenches( when landing in pits) or directly to the soil( when planting onhill or flat surface) along the perimeter of the crown.
An apple tree takes from each square meter of occupied area of feed( approximately 4 x4 = 16 m2) with an average yield of 4-6 kg( from 1 m2) of 17 g of nitrogen, 5 g of phosphorus, 20 g of potassium. The total removal of minerals during the season will be 42 g( agronorm), and the percentage of these basic nutrients( balance) for the apple tree will be 41: 11: 48.Those plants that carry more than 45% of potassium out of the total amount of elements with a yield are referred to the group of potassium-lovers. Thus, the apple tree is a potassium plant. In addition, it takes 12.6 mg of iron, 5 mg of boron, 4.4 mg of copper, 2.4 mg of manganese, 2.6 mg of zinc, and 0.05 mg of molybdenum from the soil with a yield of 1 m2 per season. All this must be returned to the soil( or to make for this season).The area of supply is 16 m2, so the apple will need 272 g of nitrogen, about 9 tbsp.spoons. Phosphorus is 80 g, but pure phosphorus in phosphorus oxide( which is a part of mineral fertilizers) contains only 0.44%, therefore, phosphorus oxide will have to take 181 g, that is, 6 tbsp.spoons of double granulated superphosphate. Potassium apple is required 320 g for the whole season, but in potassium oxide it contains 0.83%, which means that potassium fertilizer should be taken at 382 g, that is, 12 tbsp.spoons.
Unlike garden plants, which should be fed and watered all season, fruit and berry plants need mineral top dressing twice a season. The first should be done in the spring, at the time of the turn of the leaves. Plants need at this time nitrogen and potassium. But the dose of potassium should be divided into spring and late summer. Thus, when spring top dressing should be taken on 9 tbsp.spoons of nitrogen and potassium. In total there will be 18 st.spoons for 16 m2 of the area of supply. Thus, only a little more than 1 tbsp.spoons for 1 m2.If potassium nitrate is used, then 1 tbsp.spoon to dissolve in 10 liters of water, which must additionally add 1/2 st.spoonfuls of urea, and pour along the perimeter of the tree crown for one running meter. And in order to feed an adult apple tree, you need to pour out 16 buckets of the solution prepared in this way.
You can use specialized fertilizing for fruits and berries Buyskogo chemical plant, you can use only "Aquarine" or "Omu".Enough 3 tbsp.spoons for 10 liters of water. Either take Ecofosk or Kemir. At worst, use 1 tbsp.a spoonful of urea and 2 tbsp.spoons of carbonate or potassium sulfate( or calimagnesia) per 10 liters of water. If there really is not any mineral fertilizer, pour the earth under the tree around the perimeter of the crown with a solution of manure( or faeces) diluted 1: 10 with water( if using bird droppings, then prepare the solution 1: 20).Pour it around the perimeter of the apple tree crown, and a week later, on a damp surface, pour the ashes at the rate of 1 glass under a one-year-old seedling.
The nutrient solution is prepared at a rate of 10 liters per each square meter of the soil surface. An adult apple tree requires a 4 x 4 m2 feeding area, therefore, it is necessary to give at least 16 buckets of solution, but it should be poured around the perimeter of the tree crown. The berry bush needs a power area of 1.5 x 1.5 = 2.25 m2.Therefore, just pour under it( again, along the perimeter of the crown, and for the black currant, even beyond the perimeter of the crown), 2 buckets of solution. In the North-West, the first spring top dressing should be given no earlier than in early June, when spring frosts pass, because nitrogen reduces the frost resistance of plants by almost 2 degrees.
The second mineral top dressing is needed for fruit and berry crops in late summer, when they begin to grow a young root system. In the middle-end of August, prepare a solution of double granulated superphosphate( 2 tablespoons) and potassium( 1 tablespoon), not containing chlorine, for 10 liters of water. And pour this solution at a rate of 10 liters per square meter( naturally, along the perimeter of the plant's crown).Do not worry that superphosphate does not dissolve in cold water. Gradually, he will penetrate the root zone and even remain in the soil for the next season. But you can use the ready-made autumn fertilizer for the fruit-berry plants of the Buysky plant. Either once in three years will be embedded in the soil to a depth of 7-10 cm along the perimeter of the apple tree crown 3 tbsp.spoons of granulated complex fertilizer AVA.To do this, simply by the angle of the polonnik draw a groove around the apple tree.
Distribute the fertilizer evenly and sprinkle it with soil. This fertilizer does not dissolve in water, and therefore does not wash out from the soil. The plant spends it economically and evenly throughout the entire season. Fertilizer is dissolved in organic soil acids( in part the roots themselves release these acids, dissolving the fertilizer as needed).It is only necessary to remember that fertilizer does not work in alkaline environments, so do not apply ash, dolomite, lime and other deoxidants at the same time. If you fold compost once per 2-3 years around the perimeter of the crown of one or another apple tree, then no additional fertilizing will be required for the tree, except for microelements.
There is one more important moment in the life of garden plants - the intensive growth of ovaries. At this time, they need micronutrients, otherwise they will not escape the premature ejection of the ovaries and the harvest, which will not only be poorly stored, but also contain vitamins prone to rapid destruction. In addition, in healthy apples with appearance, the flesh can become brown and disgusting. Therefore, in the area where the soil is poor and practically free of microelements, it is necessary to spray the plants with young ovaries with a solution of these very trace elements. In particular, it is such soils in the Northwest, where historically there has never been a volcanic or mining activity and the magma, saturated with all the minerals, did not enrich our soils.
The best preparation for fertilizing plants with microelements is Uniflor micro, containing 15 trace elements in a chelate( intracomplex) form. Enough 2 hours spoons for 10 liters of water. Adult tree requires 5-6 liters of solution. On a berry bush it is enough 0,5 l. And it is much more effective to spray plants, and not water. If you use AVA as mineral fertilizer, then this top dressing is not required. Is it possible to replace Uniflor Micro if it does not exist? Yes, you can, with any fertilizer, which includes a large number of trace elements. Do not forget only that foliar top dressing of plants on leaves should be 10 times less concentrated than root top dressing, otherwise you will burn plants.
The pear yield is twice lower than that of the apple tree, with the same required area of power 4 x 4 m = 16 m2 - only about 3 kg from 1 m2.Therefore, the removal of mineral elements during the season is much less: 7 g of nitrogen, 3 g of pure phosphorus and 8 g of pure potassium per square meter of area of nutrition. Agro-norm-18, balance - 41: 15: 44, that is, the pear needs increased doses of phosphorus and slightly smaller doses of potassium than the apple tree. Hence, the feeding norms given for the apple tree should be taken for the pear half as much as for the apple tree. To prepare a solution, the dose of phosphorus should be increased by 1/3 st.spoons, and potassium, respectively, reduce by 1/3 st.spoons. That's all the case. If you use fertilizer AVA, then for a pear enough 2.5 st.spoons for three seasons.
Power Supply Shortage
Through the leaves, fertilizing is absorbed much faster than through the roots, so foliar nutrition is more effective, but only in emergency situations. It can not replace root nutrition. When foliar top dressing is important, that within 3-4 hours after spraying there was no rain. In addition, you need to do top dressing in the evening, so that it absorbs the leaves, and not evaporated in the sun.
If there is a lack of potassium, the leaves are folded upwards by the boat, and a brown border forms on the edges of the boat - an edge burn. Spray the plant with "Uniflor-bud"( 2 teaspoons per 10 liters of water) or a weak solution of potassium fertilizer( 1 tablespoon per 10 liters).When there is a lack of phosphorus, the leaves are stretched vertically upwards. Feed it with double granulated superphosphate( 1 tablespoon per 10 liters).At worst, potassium and phosphorus will replace ash( 1 cup of ash pour 1 liter of hot water for a day, then add water to 10 liters, strain).
With a lack of nitrogen, the foliage becomes smaller and lighter. Feed up with any nitrogen fertilizer( 1 tablespoon per 10 liters), better together with potassium( potassium nitrate, for example).Or use Uniflor Growth.
With a lack of magnesium, the leaves get a marble color - dark green with a light green. Leaves should be sprinkled with English salt or a solution of calimagnesium( 1 tablespoon per 10 liters of water).
If the marbled spot is not the same( yellow-green or red-green, etc.), then most often it shows a lack of some trace element. The easiest way is to spray "Uiiflor micro"( 2 teaspoons per 10 liters).Instead of "Uniflora" you can apply "Florist" or "Aquadon-micro" in the same concentration. At the worst, use the ashes of the ash, as it was written above.
If there are brown spots on the leaves, then most often this is evidence of a lack of iron. There is an excellent preparation "Ferovit"( 2-4 drops per 1 liter) or any of the "Uniflores".In extreme cases, apply 0.1% iron sulfate( 1 teaspoon per 10 liters of water).If the leaves have black spots, it is most likely a scab. It will not be on leaves or fruits, if the "Healthy Garden" is systematically applied.