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  • Grapes

    Vitis vinifera L. Grapes can be grown in gardens, on the walls of houses, on manors, at gazebos and use it as a decorative and productive plant. Grapes are a heat-loving plant, so successful cultivation can be achieved only in southern regions, places sheltered from the wind, where the average annual temperature does not fall below 8 °, at a height from the sea level to a maximum of 400 m. It requires light, warmed soil. If the walls of the house are white, the space is protected and early varieties are selected, then the grapes can be grown and approximately 500 m above sea level. Grapes of certain varieties can be grown on juice, for the production of wine or consumption in fresh form.

    Grapes are also lianas. In recent years, this culture by the efforts of breeders, amateur gardeners and in connection with some noticeable warming of the climate has moved far north.

    Viticulture has become widespread in the suburbs, and even the Center for Viticulture of the Non-Black Earth Region has been established. But he stepped confidently toward us, to the north.

    Many gardeners of the North-West successfully grow it on their garden plots. We can grow grapes either in greenhouses with additional shelter for the winter, or walled culture.

    But even in the open ground grapes are quite possible, though with shelter for the winter. There are varieties that can be grown by running a vine along the tree trunk, which will serve as a kind of shelter for the grapes.

    The easiest way is to grow grape varieties without pits( kishmish), as these varieties are the most fast-growing and have time to fully mature in our short summer.

    It is recommended to cultivate the following table grape varieties in non-grape areas: "Oliver", ripening in late August-early September and having medium-sized yellow berries with muscat taste, "Siger", "Fragile Beat", "Cherven Cherry" with berries of medium size too, but maturing at the end of September. Of the varieties for use in fresh form suitable, for example, the brand "Muller Thurgau", from the dark - "Portuguese Modre".The noble properties of grapes are sung by ancient poets. About them tells in the ancient Czech wine epic( 1558) and the Prague teacher Jan Gad.

    General information: the culture of the vine, from ancient times known in the western regions of the Caucasus, Asia Minor, in Greece, gradually spread to the Balkans. Now two groups of grapes - European-Asian and East-Asian - are grown in Russia. East Asian are represented by grapes wild and cultured. The cultural is distinguished by the high quality of berries, it is not frost-bitten, it is damaged by diseases. The root system is highly developed, can penetrate to a depth of 2-5 m.

    Requirements: grapes are warm and light-loving, grows well on the slopes facing south, south-west or southeast. The vine is not very demanding on the soil. With the exception of heavily waterlogged or saline soils, it grows well on almost all soils. The optimum acidity level is pH 6.5-8.0.Requirements for planting, growing conditions for grapes are the same as for all lianas.
    At the beginning of vegetation, after flowering, the vine requires moisture, and during blooming, rainy and cold weather is highly undesirable: the flowers are poorly pollinated. To create conditions for effective pollination, plant several different varieties in close proximity to one another.

    Ingredients: grape distinguishes high content of sugars( glucose and fructose);phytoncides, volatile substances, organic acids, microelements, a considerable quantity of vitamins of group B( B1 and B2), as well as a large set of salts are found in berries.

    Grapes contain water - 55-87%, sugars - primarily simple( glucose and fructose) 10-30%, organic acids( apple and grape) and their salts, pectins up to 0.3%, and minerals aremainly potassium, phosphorus, calcium, then iron, silicon, sodium, tannic, nitrogenous substances, aromatic elements, enzymes, anthocyanins, vitamins. There are not very many vitamins in grapes. Among them are vitamins B1, B2, carotene and vitamin C.
    Planting: is the best location for vineyards - the southern and south-western slopes, most provided with heat and sunlight. In the northern and middle zones, sites are selected that are well protected from winds, with undiscovered southern and south-western slopes, with fertile soil, well warmed up and un-humidified. On the plot of land grapes are best placed where it is warmer, where the sun heats all day: first of all near the walls of buildings, outbuildings, fences. Here he recovers more sunlight, ripens earlier. It is best to place grapes near the southern walls, you can also have western and eastern. In a small area where there are already trees and shrubs, it is difficult to find a more favorable place. The vine grows in one place for 30-50 years. Grapes grow better and bear fruit on well-cultivated loamy and sandy loams. Dense clay soils, as well as soils underlaid at shallow depth by clays, without radical improvement for planting are unsuitable. Marshy soils are also not categorically suitable for growing grapes. Grapes can be cultivated on neutral or slightly alkaline soils, and in texture even on stony soils. The proximity of groundwater degrades the thermal properties of the soil: the root system of the grapes develops superficially and is strongly affected by adverse factors throughout the vegetative period;grapes grow, slowly, badly ripen vines. During the growing season, groundwater should not be closer than 1.5 m from the soil surface.

    The structure of the grape plant

    1 .The head of the bush.

    2. Sleeves.

    3. Fruit link.

    4. Fruit shoots.

    5. The arrow of fruiting.

    6. The replacement knot.

    " Annual shoots

    8. Leaf shoots

    9. Steppenworm

    10. Barren shoots

    11. Underground stems

    12. Root roots

    13. Root system

    Planting of grapes at the trellis

    Young grape plants planted obliquely to the trellis at a distance of 40 cm from it, this ensures the stability of the plant and the proper development of the vines. In addition, the water draining from the roof during the rain will not cause the plant to clump. The site of grafting should not be covered with earth

    To ensure the root systemblAggressive conditions, the soil 2-3 months before planting the seedlings are dug to a depth of approximately 60 cm: the upper plowing layers are mixed with the lower ones, the large stones are removed from the surface and the small ones are left - they not only do not interfere, but also contribute to the warming of the soil.digging the earth thoroughly fertilized to a depth of 30-60 cm. Manure or compost( 10 kg / m2), superphosphate and potash fertilizers are applied to the upper layers.

    When planting in rows, you can excavate a total trench depth and width of at least 60 cm, fill it with soil from the upper horizons, manure, peat. For 1 m of the trench 0.8-1 kg of lime-lint, 1,5-2 kg of phosphorite flour, 1 kg of simple superphosphate, 1.5-2 kg of potassium salt or 2-3 kg of wood ash are introduced and mixed with soil. For individual bushes, pit 60 x 60 x 60 cm is prepared. The bushes are planted in rows in 2,5-3 m, and in the row are placed through 1,25-1,5 m.

    The vine is planted, as a rule, in the spring, in March and April, when the soil is already warm enough. Before planting the seedlings are processed: the main roots growing at the lower end are shortened by about 10 cm, and the superficial ones are cut out. Escape is shortened to 2 eyes. Before planting, it is useful to soak the roots in a moulder from the ground with mullein. In plowed soil, the holes are deeper than the seedlings themselves. At the bottom of the hole lay a mound of the upper fertile layer of soil mixed with compost;the plant is planted on a hillock so that the upper eye is 4 cm above the ground. The roots are straightened, the pit is half covered with arable land, mixed with compost. Manure in this case does not contribute. The earth around the seedlings is slightly trampled, pitted to the brim with water. After the water has absorbed, the pit is covered with earth "on top" - 3-5 cm above the level of the rest of the soil from the light earth. So young new shoots are protected from frost and drought.

    The walls are planted with a vine slightly inclined, roots from the wall. Before landing, a peg is driven into the pit, to which young shoots are attached.

    Selection of variety

    Without any problems, the sweet variety Korinka, Russian, with medium-sized light berries, grows in the Northwest. This variety we have already registered for permanent residence in the same way as the amber color of the large Aleshenkin grapes of our local selection.

    Amateur gardeners have mastered quite a few varieties of grapes: Augustow violet, Alexander dark pink, Amur blue-black, a whole series of white Potapenko varieties, as well as Moscow white, Moscow country house, Moscow steady, early Russian, Jubilee Skuinya. There is a Jubilee variety with yellow berries, with black-colored berries. Early TSHA and Rodina. So there is a choice.

    Pests and diseases

    Its main enemies are: sucking parasites of phylloxera and mite, leaf rollers, false piercing. To combat them, you can use "Fitoverm" or "Iskra-bio."And do not forget about the "Healthy Garden".

    The main disease is mildew( downy mildew), in the humid region, common powdery mildew often appears on the leaves. For the prevention of these diseases, medications containing copper are usually used. Most often, a 1% Bordeaux solution is used 5-6 times a season, since the winter shelter was removed. After the last spraying, at least 3 weeks must pass before the grapes can be eaten. Excellent results provide regular use of the drug Zircon. Grapes can be eaten a week after spraying with this drug.

    Application of

    Grapes have a moderately stimulating effect on the physiological processes in the human body. It has a positive effect on digestion, liver function, blood circulation, hemoglobin content in the blood, supports breathing, stimulates the activity of the kidneys, excretory organs. Grapes are good for healing. Although the grapes have a favorable effect on the body, it is still necessary to consult a doctor for the so-called grape treatment. For example, large doses of grapes are not shown for diabetics, despite the fact that there are basically only simple sugars.

    Before eating, grapes should be well washed with water, as it often contains traces of chemicals used in processing the vine."Grape treatment" is allowed only on the advice of a doctor. The treatment is usually from a few days to 3 weeks, while the dose of grapes is gradually increased from 1 to 3-4 kg, divided into 3-4 servings per day.

    If the grapes are sweet, its consumption can affect the body weight, so people with excessive weight choose varieties with a lower sugar content. Sweet varieties are used for recovery and in cases where it is recommended to increase body weight.

    The grapes can be stored for a long time by hanging grapes on a wire in a cold, dark room at a temperature of 8-10 °.The bunches are hung so that the berries are as close as possible to each other( you need to turn the bunch down the stalk or hang it over the first branch of the bunch).

    There is another way of storing: you need to cut a bunch with a part of the vine, leave 5 cm above the stem of the bunch, and 15-20 cm under the bunch. Put the long end into a bottle filled with water. Bottles to put with an inclination that berries did not adjoin to them.

    Table grape varieties are best used fresh, but you can also prepare jams, compote, syrups, juices, fruit drinks. In cooking, grapes are used to make flour dishes, as well as served to dishes of poultry and game. Young leaves of grapes are used for wrapping minced meat( dolma), for fish and bird wrapping.