Greenhouse flowers on a cut
Jun 21, 2018
Growing flowers in greenhouses makes it possible to supply the population with flowers in the autumn-winter and early spring periods, when the flow of open-ground flowers ceases.
The success of growing flowers in greenhouses depends on the correct selection of crops for flowering them at certain times, regulation of light, temperature, water, air and nutrient regimes. A great role here is played by the plant protection complex against pests and diseases.
The light mode in greenhouses is regulated by the total area and cleanliness of the glass coating, as well as by artificial lighting in the winter time - by electro- or fluorescent lamps.
To clean the glasses apply a solution of superphosphate( 3-4 kilograms per bucket of water) with the addition of 100-150 cm3 of sulfuric acid. The solution is applied by brush to the glass, and then it is washed off with water.
For refreshing in winter time, incandescent mirrors with a power of 300-500 watts are used, fluorescent lamps are 15-30 watts, neon and mercury lamps.
Thermal mode is maintained by means of heating devices and ventilation. In the amount of expenses heating takes 40-50 percent. The most economical are greenhouses with central water heating or using hot water as a waste of factories and plants, thermal power stations, city highways. As an option, electrical heating is possible.
For the purpose of better heat preservation at night, warming is used with mats or prefabricated shutters. Good shields from roof shavings. In the preservation of heat, it is of great importance to thoroughly glaze the glasses.
In case of overheating, it is possible to lower the temperature by ventilation, whitewashing of glass, shading with shields, mats, etc.
The water regime is usually regulated through a central water pipe. In the greenhouses arrange cemented wells with coils for heating. Watering is carried out with hoses, watering cans or automatically - sprinkling through suspended pipes. It is possible to combine irrigation with fertilizing. In the presence of concreted racks, it is possible to use under-water irrigation, which is especially necessary for some plants that do not tolerate top irrigation( cyclamens, etc.).
If there is a lack of carbon dioxide in the air, it is necessary to put drums with slurry in the conservatory. If there is excessive or insufficient humidity, airing is used, water spraying racks and paths.
Soil in greenhouses is prepared taking into account the requirements of different plants. The basic soil mixture consists of two parts of turf ground, one part humus and one part sand. In all cases, good results are obtained by adding one part of the leaf earth. With a lack of sod land, the soil is prepared by composting peat with the addition of mineral fertilizers( 1 kilogram per tonne) and liming depending on the acidity.
When disinfected, the same soil can be used for a number of years. One of the most effective preparations for soil disinfection is carbathion( valam) - a liquid of yellowish-brown color. On 1 m3 of the earth consumed 0.5 liters of the drug, dissolved in 10 liters of water. The soil is thoroughly mixed and left for 12-15 days. Since carbathion is toxic, precautions are required when working with it.
An accessible and effective method of soil disinfection - formalin disinfection. The ground or sand is moistened with water beforehand, and then watered from the watering can with a 5-10% solution of formalin, consuming 10 liters of solution per 1 m3 of soil, covered with tarpaulins or thick paper for two to three hours. Sowing is possible through the doors of the week.
For the decontamination of greenhouses, sulfur dioxide is used, which is formed by burning sulfur lumps. Pour charcoal on iron baking sheets, moisten with kerosene, lay sulfur and set fire to. The wooden parts in the greenhouse are soaked with a 10-15% solution of caustic soda.
Because plants in greenhouses are given a limited amount of land, feeding is important in regulating the nutritional regime. For fertilizing, use mineral fertilizers, slurry, mullein, chicken droppings, etc. Mineral fertilizers - ammonium nitrate, superphosphate, potassium salts, urea and others - are used in concentrations of 0.1-0.3 percent, that is 10-30grams per bucket of water. In addition to basic fertilizers, plants need trace elements: iron, copper, manganese, magnesium, molybdenum, boron, cobalt, zinc. Salts containing these elements are given in a small amount in a mixture or separately in the following concentrations per 10 liters of water: boric acid - 8-10 milligrams, manganese sulfate - 5-6, zinc sulphate 1-2, magnesium sulfate 3-4, ferrous sulfate or ferric chloride - 60, copper sulfate - 1-2, cobalt nitrate - 1 milligram.
It is more convenient to use ready-made tablets containing a mixture of microelements.
Slurry and mullein are diluted with water 15-20 times. A solution of chicken or any bird droppings is prepared as follows: 0.5 kilograms of litter is insisted in 3 liters of water. Then, the liter is diluted with 10 liters of water.
Top dressing in greenhouse conditions is much more frequent than in the open ground, once every seven to eight days. However, here also take into account the phases of plant development, their general condition and the need for different periods of growth and development. Thus, nitrogen nutrition is enhanced during the period of intensive growth, phosphorus and potassium during the budding and flowering period. Each plant needs an individual approach.
The main types of greenhouse plants grown on the cut are carnation, patchwork, chrysanthemums, roses, callas, fresesia, winter lemon, tulips and daffodils. Less common are azaleas, amaryllis, orchids, cyclamens, cineraria.