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  • Peonies

    These are perennial, wintering in the ground, very decorative and durable plants blooming in our area from the end of May to the end of June. In culture, the Chinese pion variety has spread.

    Lush beautiful peony flowers of 10 to 20 centimeters in diameter with a pleasant delicate aroma are preserved for a long time in cut form and are therefore very popular. Coloring of flowers - from pure white to dark carmine-red, sometimes two-color.

    Cutting peonies is best in the ready-to-open state of a colored bud that dissolves quickly in water.

    In the stage of a colored bud, peonies can be stored for a long time in a refrigerator or on a glacier. Cut plants for this purpose are wrapped in paper and plastic wrap, folded in small batches in boxes and placed in the cold, where they are stored for one to two months.

    There are several ways of breeding a pion: by dividing shrubs into parts, by stem cuttings, by parts of the rhizome, by the establishment of renewal buds and by layers.

    The division of the bush into parts is the most common, though less productive, way. The best time for dividing and transplanting bushes is the end of August - the beginning of September. By way of exception, a later autumn, as well as early landing, is allowed. In the spring, the division and transplanting of the bushes is done before the buds begin to grow.

    The bush is divided into parts using a large knife, shovel or pointed peg. In the latter case, the peg is placed in the center of the bush and driven by a heavy object inside, the bush is then broken up into parts. When dividing a bush, each part should have three or four kidneys and good roots.

    The technique of propagation with stem cuttings is as follows: approximately two weeks after flowering, slightly exposing the base of the bush, several shoots are cut off with a sharp knife or separated by a strong jerk of both hands. After truncating the tops, shoots are planted on loose ridges prepared in a shady place. Cuttings are planted at an angle, dipping into the ground by half. Mulched with peat, humus or sawdust, watered regularly.

    Frozen cuttings by autumn hibernate on the spot. In the second year they give an increase and by the autumn they are ready for planting in a permanent place.

    For better rooting, the cuttings are treated with growth substances: 0.01% solution of heteroauxin( 100 mg per liter of water) or indolyl-butyric acid( 25-50 mg per liter).

    During the multiplication by rooting of the buds, renewal in the spring( late April) or late summer( in the second half of August) is exposed to the base of the peony bush, slightly cleared of adherent soil and the regenerated buds are regenerated together with a small piece of the root - "with a heel".Withstand four to five hours in a 0.01% solution of heteroauxin, and then planted in a greenhouse or a shaded nursery. After 20-25 days, the buds become rooted and, during the spring cuttings in the same season, they begin to grow. After the rooting of the frame or shields, remove, the soil is kept moist. By the autumn of next year, the bushes are ready to land on a permanent place.

    It is possible to multiply pions and parts of the rhizome, on which there are sleeping buds. It should be distinguished from the pion rhizome from the roots. In the transverse section of the rhizome, the core rays do not reach the center, while at the roots they converge in the center. To better distinguish the roots from the rhizomes, the transverse sections are stained with fluoroglycine.

    In production, the accelerated method of multiplying pions by the kidneys is sometimes used with great effect. In late August - early September, the kidneys with a small part of the rhizome and all the stems are cut with a sharp shovel. The stems are cut to 12-15 centimeters, divided into parts so that each of them has one stem, planted in the ground in a two-line or one-line way with distances between plants 20, between lines - 30, between rows - 70 centimeters. The depth of planting is 5-6 centimeters. After two or three years of growing, the bushes are ready for implementation.

    The parts of the bush left after removal of the kidneys continue to develop normally, somewhat reducing the blooming power. Cut the buds from the bushes can be carried out for three consecutive years. In the fourth year these bushes are excavated and divided into standard parts. From one bush it turns out six or seven landing units.

    Provided that the soil is well maintained and the soil is wet, the planted buds provide a 100% survival rate, springing together in growth in the spring. Good results are obtained by mulching in rows. If mulching is not used, the soil may be loosened more often to preserve moisture.

    Less commonly, vertical propagation is used. For this purpose, in the spring, when shoots reach a height of 20-25 centimeters, they are hugged at the base in two steps. By the fall, at the base of the bored shoots, a root system is formed. Shoots with roots and kidneys are separated and planted for growth.

    On a permanent place, peony bushes are planted at a distance of 70-100 centimeters from each other. Due to the fact that the bush is in one place for a long time - up to 15-20 years, the soil is planted carefully for planting: plow to a depth of 40-45 centimeters, previously spreading organic and mineral fertilizers.

    In small areas, planting is made in pits measuring 40-50 centimeters. The pits are filled with the top soil nutrient layer. In the lower part of the pit, humus( half a bucket) and a full mineral fertilizer( 50-60 grams of mixture) are added, which mix well with the soil.

    When planting, make sure that the bush in the pit is not deeply buried. Renewal buds should be at the level of the soil surface.

    When autumn planting with the onset of frost, the bases of the bushes are plowed with earth. In spring, after unloading, the soil near the bushes is mulled with humus, when dried, watered.

    Peony is a plant that responds very well to organic fertilizer and watering. Particularly useful are the application of fertilizers and watering during the laying and formation of the kidneys of renewal, which occurs shortly after flowering. Therefore, you should take care of the plants in the second half of the summer, although the peonies do not already bloom.

    With the growth of peduncles and the growth of buds, the stems of the peonies bend to the ground. Then around the bushes establish simple supports in the form of quadrangular wooden frames or thick bent wire.

    For obtaining high-quality flowers, the side buds are pinched, leaving one central flower on the stem.

    Peony flowers are preserved in cut form in water for quite a long time - from five to ten days.