Mycosis of the skin and internal organs - Causes, symptoms and treatment. MF.
Jun 13, 2018
Mycosis is a group of diseases caused by a variety of fungi, affecting the skin, appendages of the skin and internal organs. In general, fungi can be present on healthy skin, but under certain conditions it is possible to "manifest" oneself, such as with the features of the immune system and its reduction( HIV infection), adverse environmental factors, malignant tumors, widespread use of antibiotics, cytotoxic agents, concomitant chronic diseases, diabetes mellitus, skin overheating, increased humidity.
The most convenient classification of mycoses:
1) Keratomycosis( multicolored lichen, piedra, tiny mycosis).The last two forms are found in countries with a hot climate.
2) Dermatomycosis( epidermophytosis, microsporia, trichophytosis, favus)
3) Candidiasis. A large group of diseases affecting the skin, mucous membranes, internal organs with yeast.
4) Deep mycoses( histoplasmosis, coccidoidosis, blastomycosis, cryptococcosis, geotrichosis, chromomycosis, rhinosporidosis, aspergillosis, mucorosis.) Severe diseases, but fortunately we are rare in this group, including pseudomycoses that are divided into superficial( erythrasma, axillarytrichomycosis) and
are deep( actinomycosis, micromonosporosis, nocardiosis), but this is not justified, since they cause microorganisms that look like mushrooms, but they are more related to bacteria in their vital activity
Causes of mycoses
The ways of transmission are contact, air-dust( cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis), as a result of violation of the integrity of the skin and mucous membranes, sexual( vulvovaginal candidiasis). A very often pathogens are looking for thin areas of our bodyand natural folds
Symptoms of mycosis
When can you suspect a fungal infection? The common symptoms are skin peeling, hyperemia( redness), itching. If the mucous membranes are affected, then it can be white plaque, inflammation, burning.
Example of yeast infection of the oral mucosa - candidiasis stomatitis :
The most common disease that affects the population of our country from the group of keratomycosis is discordant( multicolored) lichen .The process touches the skin of the trunk with the characteristic spots of the color "coffee with milk" and pungent peeling in the center or they will be white if a person sunbathed and through these places the sun did not "penetrate".
More widely represented group of dermatomycoses .These fungi live on hair where there will be excision of hair as at microsporia and trihofitii, a skin, with its or her peeling, an inflammation which can be with a characteristic red roller on pereferii. The most frequent localization is the natural folds of the skin( axillary, inguinal region, interdigital spaces).The process may be accompanied by itching.
With onychomycosis ( nail fungus), they change color, usually from the edge, to yellow. The nail plate crumbles. It is either hypertrophic( increased) or hypotrophic( otherwise reduced).
Unlike dermatophytes, yeasts can cause diseases on all tissues, except hair. They are often found on a healthy body and do not cause any pathology at the same time. Candida very like a moist and warm environment, and therefore localized on the natural folds of the skin. For example, candidal intrigue, this condition is also called "washerwoman's illness".He exposed people who, by virtue of their profession, have contact with water( cleaners, dishwashers).
Especially it would be desirable to note a yeast lesion of genitals. In men it is a candidal balanoposthitis( inflammation of the glans penis and foreskin), in women candidal vulvovaginitis( mucous membrane of the vagina and external genital organs).The process is accompanied by burning and itching. Pregnant women may have intrauterine infection of the fetus( skin, mucous membranes, internal organs) under unhealthy factors. Therefore, this disease must be treated and during pregnancy. In HIV - infected candidiasis takes a malignant course with lesions of mucous membranes, internal organs, poorly treatable, often retsediviruet.
Diagnosis of Mycoses
Dermatologist or doctor - mycologist is engaged in diagnostics and treatment of fungal infections. The diagnosis of "mycosis" is set on the basis of laboratory tests. Various sub-strata are taken - this is most often surface skin scales, as well as blood, sputum, feces. These materials are treated with reagents and are looked under a microscope.
Fungus( candida) under the microscope
To determine the type of causative agent, culture methods are used - growth of the fungus on the "nutrient media" that are "dear to him".
In 1925, Margarot and Deveze discovered that some dermatomycoses localized on the hair emit a characteristic ultraviolet light. So it is possible to conduct differential diagnostics with such similar diseases as microsporia and trichophytosis.
It is very important to do additional research to answer the question: "Why did the fungus manifest itself?".At this point, the survey will be relevant: a blood test for sugar, a check for all sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV, with balanoposthitis, vulvovaginitis, skin candidiasis.
Treatment of mycoses
For the treatment of mycoses, there are various dosage forms: topical therapy is ointments( nizoral, lamizil, mifungar), solutions as ready-made forms( iodine solution), and prescription( salicylic-resorcinol alcohol), suppositories( pimafucin, is the choice when treating "thrush" during pregnancy).If the process is localized on the scalp, it is appropriate to use medical shampoos( nizoral - shampoo, ketoconazole).When the above forms can not "get" to the fungus, then prescribe tablets( mikosist, lamizil).
During the "fight" with mycosis, hygiene measures( processing of shoes, clothes), that is all that comes in contact with the patient's body, are observed.
Remembering about prevention, it should be remembered that there are three points for the development of the fungus: where it is damp, dark, warm. From this comes the conclusion about the observance of personal hygiene, normal aeration of clothing. If there is a sick person in the family who, I hope, has already turned to the doctor, then he should have his own towel, clothes, followed by their processing.
Doctor dermatovenereologist Mansurov A.S.