Physalis useful properties
Jun 08, 2018
Physalis is a thermophilic perennial plant, in apartments it can be grown as an annual one. The family is Solanaceous. The homeland is tropical and subtropical America. About 100 kinds of physalis are known.
In the wild, the physalis grows on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus. Two species are cultivated: Mexican and strawberry. In room conditions the Mexican physalis reaches no more than 60 - 80 cm, and the strawberry - 30 - 40 cm.
The leaves are light green, broadly oval. Upper leaves are opposite, long-petioled, ovate, entire, rarely eroded.
Flowers are small, greenish-yellow, self-pollinating.
Flowers are solitary, drooping, located in the axils of the upper leaves. Calyx fused, five-toothed;corolla five-lobed, fused, greenish-white, 15-20 mm wide;stamens 5 attached at the base of the corolla;pestle of 2 carpels with the upper ovary.
Fruit is an orange-red spherical berry, covered from the outside by a second bubble and painted in a flame-red cup. Fruit - fleshy berry, different colors( from purple and red to light yellow).
Seed set. Blossoms in the summer.
Found in light forests and among shady bushes, near populated areas and vineyards, sometimes as weeds.
The best varieties of physalis are: Moscow early, Gruntovy Mushroom, Confectionery and others.
Fisals fruits are pleasant to taste, they are consumed both in fresh and in processed form.
The root system of the plant is small, so it can be freely grown in rooms, on balconies, loggias.
♦ Accommodation. Physalis is a photophilous and heat-loving plant. In autumn and winter it should be placed on light windows, with a room temperature of at least +18 - + 25 ° C.In spring and summer, early autumn, physalis recommend to take out on the balcony, veranda, loggia, where it will grow beautifully and give a high yield of fruits.
♦ Planting and care. The best soils for planting physalis are substrates with a neutral reaction, rich in organic substances. We recommend "Universal biogrunt" or soil mixture "Rose", sold in flower shops.
In indoor conditions physalis should be grown in seedlings. Seeds are sown in small boxes, and then the best plants are transplanted into large pots( diameter 15-20 cm) or individual boxes. The distance between the plants is 25-30 cm. Cultivate the fizalis with a bush, without applying a garter and pasynkovanie. Further care for the plant is in infrequent watering and feeding, which is carried out every 10 days. As fertilizers, it is best to use a universal granulated dressing for flowers "Flower" or liquid concentrated fertilizer "Rainbow".
Maturing of the first fruits occurs 50 to 60 days after transplanting.
To strengthen the branching, which consequently leads to an increase in the number of fruits on the plant, it is necessary to hold the apical shoots.
♦ Pests and diseases. Pests for the physalis are the wireworm and winter scoop.
Sick physalis with the same diseases as tomatoes, - phyto-fluorosis, black leg.
♦ Reproduction - by seeds. Seeds germinate at a temperature of + 20 ° C.Then the seedlings are planted at the age of 25 -30 days in pots or boxes.
Some types of physalis are used in decorative gardening. Beautiful large flowers with a blue aureole have an interesting biological feature. Flowers-lanterns blossom at 12 o'clock in the afternoon, and already at 16 o'clock they close.
We mainly grow in two types: Mexican and strawberry. Physalis is undemanding to soils. From one bush physalis it is possible to receive 3-5 kg of fruits.
Physalis loves good illumination, moist soil at an early age, dry air, moderately fertile soil during growth and development. Do not fit it acidic, dense soil, does not like physalis fresh manure, excessive doses of mineral fertilizers, prolonged cooling( below 10 degrees).
Choice of a kind of physalis
Mexican( vegetable) physalis - branched, tall( 120-150 cm), unpretentious plant, the most cold-resistant of all nightshade crops( sprouts appear at a temperature of 10-12 degrees).
He has rather large fruits( 60-70 g), which are enclosed in cases. Fruits are covered with sticky substance, so before use they are released from the cases and washed with hot water to wash off the sticky substance.
Strawberry( raisin) physalis is lower( about 70 cm), its berries are smaller( 30-40 g) and more sweet, with a pleasant aroma slightly reminiscent of strawberry, also in cases. This kind of physalis is more thermophilic( shoots appear at a temperature above 15 degrees).
Decorative physlises having orange or yellow covers are widely used. Usually they are used in winter bouquets. The berries are small and inedible. There is a decorative Peruvian physalis, blooming with bright blue flowers for a long time. The bush grows tall( 120-150 cm), with a thick purple stalk, and resembles a small tree, entirely covered with flowers.
Features of growing physalis
Physalis easily multiplies by self-seeding. From fall in the fall on the soil of fruits in the spring there are shoots, as soon as the temperature of the soil warms up to 12 degrees. Cultivate the physalis through seedlings in the same way as tomatoes, but it can be sown for seeding a month later than tomatoes, since it enters the fruiting 80-100 days after emergence, depending on the variety. It can be planted in the open ground, but only after the spring frosts pass.
On sprouts of vegetable physalis it is necessary to sow approximately for 40-50 days before transplantation in a ground or a hothouse. In the North-West region, the crop is planted at the end of March. You can grow fast-growing varieties in a non-fruitful way. The regime of watering and feeding is the same as that of tomato, but, unlike him, the physalis is not stepchildren and do not form. Phyto-phlogis is not sick.
The Physalis is stored until the very spring, right in the cases in an ordinary cardboard box, which is kept on the windowsill.
Seedlings of strawberry physalis should be transplanted to a permanent place at the age of 30-40 days, when planted in the place in early June, it should be planted in seedlings at the end of April, and when planted in a greenhouse in early May - planted in seedlings at the end of March. Sowing and grooming, as for tomatoes. In the North-West the strawberry physalis grows poorly in the open ground, it has to be raised under shelter( like cucumbers), which should be removed for the day. Its yield is much lower than that of vegetable.
Fruits from both types of physalis must be harvested in a timely manner, with the onset of their biological ripeness, otherwise they will crack and fall to the ground, where they are instantly eaten by insects. Fruiting begins in July and continues until the frost.
All kinds of physalis can be grown with their own seeds. The seeds are very small, they should be sown shallowly, about 1 cm, and avoid thickening. Plant transplant is well tolerated.
Pest from the pest to the physalis is sometimes attacked by aphids, and from diseases - stem rot. The flowers of the Physalis attract a large number of insect pollinators.
The good quality of the physalis is that it is stored in the winter in an apartment on the window sill in a cardboard box, always in cases that are removed as needed, and the berries are washed in hot water to wash off the sticky layer.
Useful properties of
Medicinal raw materials are ripe fruits. The raw material contains a coloring substance, a bitter substance called - fizalin, etc.
Fizalis fruits are used in folk medicine. They are used for articular rheumatism, urological and especially renal ailments, liver and gallbladder disease.
Of the dried fizalis fruit, an ointment is made, which is used for rheumatic joint and muscle pain. It should be remembered that when using fruits of physalis it is necessary to separate the cup containing toxic substances.
Fisalis fruits are recommended as a diuretic for stones in the kidney and bladder, purulent inflammation of the urinary organs, dropsy, gout, articular rheumatism.
Fizalis fruits are useful in cholelithiasis, jaundice, inflammation of the stomach, with craniocerebral trauma. It promotes the excretion of stones from the kidneys and gallbladder.
By the way, physalis removes toothache, for this it is necessary to brew 10-15 fruits 0.5 liters of boiling water, boil for 5 minutes, cool a little, strain through 2 layers of gauze and rinse the teeth with warm broth 3-4 times a day.
In Bulgarian folk medicine, a decoction of the fetis is recommended for rheumatism, gout, jaundice, hemorrhages, pains in the stomach and intestines, as a diuretic with difficulty urinating and against hemorrhoids.
Decoction: 15-30 g of dry fruit per 0.5 l of water( a dose for 2 days, which should be drunk with sips), or eat 10-15 fresh fruits a day, or drink 20 g of fresh fruit juice daily.
Fruits should be eaten without a cup that is poisonous!
Application in cooking
Both types of physalis, both vegetable and strawberry, are rich in organic acids, especially lemon, polysaccharides, pectins( there are more of them in the physalis than in apples).
There are no contraindications for use in food at physalis.
The vegetable physalis is used raw in salads, it is marinated, salted, used for cooking caviar, jam is made from it, jam, marmalade, candied fruits are made, as it has gelling properties.
Strawberry physalis berries are used fresh, dried, obtaining raisins;cook them jam.
Fisalis fruits blanch 2-3 minutes in hot water, then recline on a sieve, allow to drain water. Prepare a syrup based on 1 kg of fruit - 500 g of sugar and 0.5 liters of water. Hot syrup should be poured in prepared fizalis fruits. Leave in syrup for 3 - 4 hours. Then add another 500 g of sugar, gently warm with stirring until the sugar is completely dissolved. Cook for 10 minutes. Leave on for 5-6 hours. The second time to cook for 10-15 minutes.
You can make candied fruit from a ready-made jam. Finished jam pour into a sieve, drain the syrup. Fisalis fruits should be put on a baking tray and dried in the oven at a temperature of 35 - 40 ° C.Then sprinkle the fruits with sugar. Store in a cardboard box, in a dry place.
Caviar from physalis
Fruits are baked and passed through a meat grinder. Add salt and sugar to taste.
For preparation of marinade: 1 liter of water 1 tbsp.spoon of salt, 3 tbsp.spoons of sugar, 1 bay leaf, 4-5 peas of black pepper, 3 tbsp.spoons of 9% vinegar, 1 tbsp.spoon of vegetable oil.
To clear from cases Mexican physalis, blanch for 1 minute in boiling water, cut in half and lay in a sterile jar on the very shoulders with slices upwards. Prepare the marinade and pour the physalis to the top of the jar. Roll, turn on the lid and cool it under the blanket.
Store in a cool place.