• Useful and medicinal properties of the nail

    Synonyms: marigolds , conjectures, crocus, core, chemist's nail, calendula officinalis.

    Description. Annual herbaceous plant of the family of astroids( Asteraceae) 30-60 cm high. Root branched, rod-shaped. Stem is rounded, branched, golden-pubescent above, erect. Leaves are elongated, regular, lower - petiolate, upper - sessile. Flowers collected

    us in the apical baskets, orange or orange-red. Fruit - achenes of different sizes. The mass of 1000 seeds - 8-10 g. Blossoms from June to late autumn. Fruits ripen in July-August.

    Medicinal raw materials: flower baskets.

    Biological features. Nails can grow on a wide variety of soils as a fairly unpretentious plant, which multiplies easily by self-seeding and grows like a weed. In culture, a male form of marigold is grown, which, depending on the conditions of growth and size of the seed, the number of double flowers varies from 12 to 39%.Seed reproduction. Seedlings appear on the 6-12 day after sowing. The phase of budding occurs 20-25 days after the emergence of sprouting, the beginning of flowering - on day 38-50, ripening of the seeds is observed after 2-2,5 months. Systematic and complete removal of inflorescences causes abundant flowering, which ends only at the end of the growing season. Even partial abandonment of flowers in which seeds begin to form, reduces the formation of new buds, and at the same time yields. Seeds begin to germinate at a temperature of 2-4 "C. Seed germination lasts 3-5 years

    Places grows in damp, open sunny areas

    Distribution: Medicated nails originate from Central and Southern Europe, they are bred in gardens throughout Ukraineand in vegetable gardens as an ornamental plant for medicinal needs are grown in specialized farms

    Chemical composition Marigold flowers contain about 3% carotenoids, flavonoids, essential oils( about 0.02%), saponins, bitter kale matter(up to 3.44%) and tannins, mucus( up to 2.5%), inulin, organic acids, phytosterols, enzymes, vitamin C, alkaloids and triterpendiols.

    Application The medicinal properties of marigolds were known back in the 12th century, and at the end of the XVI century drugs from them began to be widely used in many diseases.

    Medicated medicines have anti-inflammatory, bactericidal, wound-healing, spasmolytic and sedative properties, increase the metabolic function of the liver( secretory and excretory functions increase, decreasesontsentratsiya bilirubin and cholesterol in bile).The wide therapeutic activity of marigolds is explained by the presence in them of a significant amount of carotenoids, flavonoids and salicylic acid, vitamins and other compounds. Particularly widely used marigolds for local treatment. With cracks in the skin and herpes in the bubble rash and the formation of sores, 10% infusion of flower baskets is used in vegetable oil, and for acne and infectious crack in the corners of the mouth - 20% infusion. A diluted tincture( 1 teaspoon of tincture on a glass of boiled water) is treated with a shin ulcers, pityrius lichen and fat facial seborrhea, eczema, pustular rash on the skin and frostbite, rinse the mouth and throat( every 1.5-2 hours)with aphthous stomatitis, gingivitis, pyorrhea, inflammatory-dystrophic forms of periodontal disease, tonsillitis and tonsillitis, douche with erosion of the cervix and trichomonas colpitis, make baths and microclysters( before and after emptying) with proctitis, paraproctitis and anal fissures, compresses andbaths for gl.of at blepharitis, conjunctivitis and barley( in ophthalmic practice using double-strength solution - 1 tsp tincture 0.5 cup boiling water.).To rinse the mouth and throat, microclysters and syringings, you can use a 10-20% aqueous solution of flower baskets( for syringing infusion dilute boiled water in a ratio of 1: 5).In the treatment of angina, marigold preparations are used as an independent agent or in combination with sulfonamides and antibiotics. Terra

    the effect of peptic treatment with local treatment of shin ulcers, skin cracks and pustular rash on the skin can be significantly enhanced by simultaneous ingestion of tincture or infusion of marigolds. Freckles on the face and hands are taken out everyday by a two-time( morning and evening) lubrication of the affected areas with juice from fresh marigold leaves, mixed evenly with lemon juice, currant berries and almond oil. Of the ready-made pharmacy products, except for the tincture specified above, for local procedures use ointment karyofilenovuyu( anti-inflammatory, which helps stop itching and reduce infiltration with dermatitis, eczema, trophic ulcers) and ointment of calendula. In a number of diseases, oral marigold treatment is performed. The use of marigolds is recommended for gastritis, peptic ulcer of stomach and duodenum, colitis, enterocolitis, liver disease, biliary tract. A positive therapeutic effect is observed when using marigolds in a mixture with chamomile and yarrow. Successfully used marigolds for cardiovascular diseases, which are accompanied by palpitations, shortness of breath and swelling. In obstetrics and gynecology, infusion or tincture of marigolds is given orally with continuous vomiting in pregnant women( drink before meals for 2-3 weeks), dysmenorea( drink 3 times a day for 5-7 days before the onset of menstruation), with hypertension andinsomnia in the menopause. In folk medicine, except for all the aforementioned cases, infusion and tincture of flower baskets of marigolds are given inside with auto, bronchitis, scrofula, rickets, jaundice, bladder diseases( formation of stones and sand) and spleen, nervous fever and dizziness. Of the ready-made preparations, tablets of cathydes are used to treat anemia and kaleflon, an anti-inflammatory drug that stimulates the reparative processes in peptic ulcer of the stomach and duodenum and in chronic gastritis. Calendula is also widely used in homeopathy.

    Agrotechnics of cultivation. Site selection. Nails are an unpretentious plant. But the best yields they give on well-lit, fairly humid soils. The best precursors for marigolds can be

    kernels not

    new, leguminous, as well as tilled crops. Nails can grow for a long time in one place, so they can be placed on the reserved areas.

    Soil treatment. The main, autumn plowing should be made as early as possible to a depth of 22-25 cm, as well as for other row crops.

    Application of fertilizers. To ensure prolonged flowering under the marigold, it is recommended to introduce a sufficient number of fertilizers: for basic fall plowing - 30-40 t / ha of humus or a mixture of organo-mineral fertilizers in the calculation of 20-30 t / ha humus, 3-4 c / ha superphosphate and 1-1.5 c / ha of ammonium nitrate. If there is no humus, mineral fertilizers should be applied at a rate of 6 centner / ha of superphosphate, 1.5-2 centners / ha of ammonium nitrate and 1 centner / ha of potassium salt.

    Reproduction. The nails multiply by sowing seeds directly into the soil, the best time for sowing is early spring( simultaneously with sowing of early spring crops).The sow is produced by ordinary grain seeders with a row spacing of 60 cm;the seeding rate is 10-12 kg / ha, the depth of embedding is 2-3 cm. It is possible to sow and tape - two-row seeding with a distance between the bands of 60 cm, and between the rows - 15 cm.

    Care of plantations. After the emergence of sprouting loosening the row and weeding out the weeds in rows. This treatment is repeated 2-3 times in the first half of the summer before the rows close, when it is still possible to conduct the inter-row processing. For a more abundant and prolonged flowering it is recommended 1-2 times per summer to feed crops with organic mineral fertilizers.

    Harvesting. Due to the fact that the marigolds bloom for a long time and not simultaneously, the collection of inflorescences during the growing season produces 15-20 times. Inflorescences are cut off near the base by hand in the opening phase of 2-4 circles of tubular flowers in nonmahr forms and when half of the ligulate flowers are opened for terry. The first flowering period passes quickly, so the harvest is repeated every 2-3 days, and then - after 4-5 days and less often. With good agrotechnics, the crop of air-dry inflorescences reaches 18 centners / ha.

    Drying is carried out immediately after collection on covered currents, in dryers with good ventilation. Inflorescences lay a thin layer on the frames with stretched burlap, on the shelves,

    during drying, the grass should be slightly agitated. In fire dryers, the temperature should not exceed 45 ° C.

    Packing. Packed in plywood boxes lined with paper, 20 kg each.

    Storage. In a well-ventilated area.

    Quality requirements. Raw materials must meet the requirements of the State Pharmacopoeia XI( FS-5, pp. 237-238).

    Seed growing. Seed plots are laid by seeds of the seed-growing elite or the first reproduction. The size of the seed plot is 3-5% of the commodity plantation. Spatial insulation is not less than 50 m. On the seed plots, from the very beginning of flowering, all plants with non-orange-red flowers, as well as small baskets, are removed to prevent cross-pollination.

    Seeds do not mature at the same time, so the first 2-3 collections are done selectively by hand, when they acquire a brown color. The last time harvest grain harvesters. The collected seeds are scattered by a layer of 3-5 cm on canvas for drying, and then cleaned on grain cleaning machines. The yield of seeds is 4-6 centners per hectare.