• Breast and artificial feeding

    The child's milk needs are met by the mother's milk, excess fluid increases the load on the functionally immature kidneys of the child, so it is recommended not to give the child extra water. The introduction of glucose similarly increases the burden on the kidneys, increases the risk of developing allergies. The best food that can ensure a normal development in the first months of life is breast milk. Therefore, before the medical personnel of the children's polyclinic and women's clinics, a special task is set up - the promotion of breastfeeding and the appropriate preparation of the woman for breastfeeding.

    In 1989, WHO and UNICEF adopted the Declaration, which states: "Breastfeeding is a unique process that provides ideal nutrition for young children, their normal growth and development;reduces the incidence and severity of infectious diseases, thereby reducing child morbidity and mortality. "

    When breastfeeding, the baby develops passive immunity, since the mother provides the baby with antibodies( immunoglobulins G).In breast milk are antibodies to saprophytic and enteropathogenic Escherichia, shigella, enterovirus, cocci flora and other, as well as immunoglobulin A. Its concentration in colostrum is 5-10 times higher than in serum, and in the following period its content remains significant. Immunoglobulin A of female milk has a broad antimicrobial and antiviral effect throughout the gastrointestinal tract. The level of lysozyme in breast milk is 1000-3000 times higher than in cow's milk. Women's milk contains complement and lactoferrin. The latter has an antibacterial effect.

    Artificial mixtures in terms of their chemical composition are as close as possible to breast milk, but they can not replace women's milk completely, especially when feeding children of the first months of life.

    Among the most common reasons for transferring children to artificial feeding is hypogalactia.

    Hypogalactia is a decrease in the secretory capacity of the mammary glands. A local nurse plays a special role in the prevention of hypogalactia. At the patronage visit she should find out from her mother the level of lactation and in case of hypogalactia it should organize control feeding of the child in the polyclinic or at home.

    With hypogalactia, it is necessary to determine the cause of its occurrence, which can often be associated with an unfavorable psychological situation, with psychogenic effects or diseases of the mother. The visiting nurse should soothe the woman as much as possible and convince her of the possibility of restoring sufficient lactation, and also within her competence to try to eliminate the cause of hypogalactia. Breast milk is produced in almost all women. Absence of breast milk is extremely rare and can be due solely to a serious illness of the mother.

    It is important to encourage the feeding of the child at his request, and not on a schedule. The duration of application of the baby to the breast of the mother is no more than 20 minutes. When breastfeeding newborns, the use of soothing drugs that mimic the mother's breast( nipple, pacifiers, etc.) is not recommended.

    Regulation of diet, day regimen helps restore lactation level. Along with this, to stimulate the production of milk, special drinks are used, which enhance lactation.

    If breastfeeding and breastfeeding are used in the feeding of the child, then they talk about mixed feeding. With a mixed type of feeding, the amount of supplement is from 1/5 to 4/5 of the daily amount of food. If breast milk is completely absent or less than 1/5 of the daily volume of nutrition, then talk about the artificial type of feeding.

    The organization of a rational nutrition of the woman during pregnancy is of great importance for normal lactation. Usually in the first half of pregnancy, a woman's diet does not have any special differences, but adequate supply of the body with vitamins and minerals is necessary. Optimum sources of these substances are vegetables and fruits. In the second half of pregnancy the mass of the fetus begins to increase intensively. Therefore, the body of a woman experiences an increased need for basic food substances: in protein - the basic plastic material, in mineral substances for building the skeleton of the fetus, in vitamins for the active flow of metabolic processes. In this regard, women in the second half of pregnancy should be encouraged to increase the intake of protein and other foods rich in calcium salts( milk, cottage cheese).It is desirable that a woman's daily diet at this time included about 500-600 ml of milk or fermented milk products, 100-150 g of cottage cheese, 150-200 g of meat or fish, 500-600 g of vegetables, 200-300 g of fruit or berries. If it is necessary to increase the protein component of the diet, it is important to recommend special dry milk formulas for pregnant women - "Femilak-1", "Enfamil-Mama", which are enriched with vitamins and minerals.

    By the end of pregnancy, to prevent excessive weight gain, a woman needs to explain the importance of limiting the amount of carbohydrates in the diet by reducing consumption of bread, confectionery and sugar. Women during the entire pregnancy should recommend the intake of vitamin preparations, primarily vitamins B and ascorbic acid, for sufficient supply of the body with vitamins.

    After discharge from the maternity hospital it is recommended to feed the child at his request, up to 10-12 times a day, without a night break. The optimal number of feedings during the first month is 8 times a day, at the request of the child.