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  • Mechanical methods of pest control

    Mechanical methods of plant pest control are very simple and include the mechanical removal of pests from plant parts, the manufacture of simple devices and the observance of simple measures to prevent widespread spread of pests, but taken in combination, these measures are capable of protecting plants without significant labor and expense. However, it should be noted that mechanical methods of struggle are effective only in the systematic, regular and timely use at the initial stage of plant damage.

    The removal of pests from a plant is well used in the initial stage of plant damage. Most often pests are affected by the reverse side of the leaves, young immature shoots, bark, root cervix. The pests are removed from the plants and put into a suitable container, after which they are destroyed. Thus, you can fight the Colorado beetle, snails, slugs. From potato plants in small areas, you can collect Colorado beetles, their larvae and egg laying in a jar of kerosene or a strong concentrated salt solution in which they die. It is necessary to examine the soil around the plant for the presence of eggs, colonies of harmful insects and slugs and, if found, destroy.

    : - Shaking is effective on large plants, this method is most often used in relation to fruit trees. Under the tree lay a light cloth and gently shake the branches, so as not to damage them. Pests fall on the fabric, after which they are collected and destroyed.

    With it is advisable to use a strong water jet to fight the aphid colonies, but it is possible to use this method of fighting

    1 . The protective net prevents butterflies and flies from penetrating the plant leaves, where they usually lay eggs. The grid is convenient in that it does not interfere with the development of plants, it allows water and air to pass through and restrains the spread of pests.

    Cabbage "collars" can be easily made from cardboard or film. They are placed close to the stem of the plant planted. With the help of the cabbage collar, "

    " can be prevented from laying pests of eggs at the base of the cabbage stalk of

    only to strong plants capable of withstanding the water pressure

    The pest from the plant trunks should be cleaned in autumn.also clean off colonies of densely located small pests such as aphids from shoots of plants

    "-" An effective means of controlling pests is the use of a special mesh to protect nestsa flock of flies and butterflies. The beds are covered with a net that prevents butterflies and flies from reaching the plants and laying eggs on their leaves, from which then leaf-eating larvae and caterpillars will appear. On the other hand, the mesh well passes air and water, retains heat and does not interfere

    Cabbage "collars" are a simple and reliable way to protect cabbage plantations, they do not allow harmful insects to lay eggs on the basis of the cabbage stalk - the most vulnerable part of the plant for the pests.

    -Trap-traps are put on trunks of fruit trees. They are made of corrugated cardboard or coiled in a few layers of hemp, pakli. It is important that inside the ring there are voids, in which harmful insects can fill. Belt-traps must be changed often, destroying the harmful insects that got there. Thus, it is possible to fight successfully with the apple tree.

    Adhesive rings are worn in October on the tree-31 fruit trees closer to the base. The

    is neither designed to prevent the flying female

    from hibernating in the soil, to lay eggs darker than the moth. Female body on the trunk to make eggs laying in

    Adhesive rings,

    cuffs

    and belt-traps

    place

    on the trunks of

    fruit trees

    to fight

    with pests

    laying

    eggs on the bark of

    and under bark of

    of trees

    tree bark and sticks to the ring or lays eggs under it. In the spring of the ring, it is necessary to remove and peel the bark of the tree under them, so that the eggs of the moth do not remain there. The low fence around the planting of cabbage, lettuce or leafy vegetables serves as an obstacle to the advancement of snails and slugs and protects the tender leaves of plants from the union Belt-traps

    From the point of view of protecting fruit trees from pests, and primarily from the apple moth and mites, the lining of the trap zones is most effective. On large old trees, belt-traps are imposed not only on the stem, but also on the thick skeletal branches. Where the apple fescue develops in two generations, the belts are placed in the middle of June, are scanned every 7-10 days until mid-August, that is, at least 6-8 times in 2 months. From the middle of August, the belts are left on the tree and removed late in the autumn when they were clogged with ticks. Belts are made mainly of corrugated cardboard, cutting strips of width 20-25 cm across grooves. On a cardboard it is possible to paste a layer of cotton wool or rags. The trunk should be wrapped with a ready belt and tie it with twine or wire. Each gardener can choose for himself the most convenient design of the belt. It is very convenient to have two sets of belts: one is removed from the pests, the other is immediately set, after cleaning the bark of the tree at the place where the belt is attached from the remaining caterpillars.

    Warning!

    In the trap belt, not only harmful but also useful insects are taken, so we recommend that after removing the trap from the tree, shake it out onto a sheet of paper and let all the useful insects that have come into it fly away and crawl away, and turn off the leaf with the remaining caterpillars and mites and bury it inland or burn.

    A low fence made of tin or plastic prevents the penetration of snails and slugs onto the bed with foliar cultures and cabbage

    .Slugs are usually hidden during the daytime and feed mainly at night, often staying between cabbage leaves, so if they do not fall on the bed, the chances of damaging the plants will be much less.o Using food and vegetable baits can lure pests to a specific place where they will then be easily collected and destroyed. For larvae of the beetle-beetle-wireworm, halves of potatoes, beets, carrots, which are buried in the soil at a depth of 5-15 cm at the rate of 1-2 pieces per 1 m2, can serve as such bait and mark this place with a twig. Wireworms attack the bait, after 3-4 days it is excavated and all the accumulated pests are destroyed.

    Poisoned baits

    It is known how much trouble such pests as mice, moles, honey vedka deliver to the gardener. Effective against them can be plant-based preparations, simple recipes of which are given below.

    Aconite: rhizomes{ abrade into powder and add to bait for mice and moles at the rate of 1/2 cup root per 1 kg of food.

    Autumn crocus autumn: seeds of the plant to grind and add to the bait for mice at the rate of 20 grams per 1 kg of food.

    Elderberry: due to strong odor can be used in the fight against rodents. Young branches and leaves grind, allow to dry and grind into powder. Mix powder with food as bait at the rate of 200 g. Dry powder per 1 kg of food.

    Vorony eye-, rhizomes dry, pound and grind into powder.50 grams of powder mixed with 1 kg of food and used as bait.

    An effective way to disorient, confuse and distract pests from the main plantations of crops are the so-called distractions planting. To combat the Colorado potato beetle, early in the summer, with intentional delay, it is possible to make a potato planting near the potato bed. When in the main bed of the tops it becomes hard, Colorado beetles will move to young tasty plants distracting planting. You can also do with slugs, spreading between cabbage rows or leafy vegetables for them, separate leaves of cabbage or lettuce, which will be more accessible to pests and distract them to themselves.

    The traps of various kinds are effective for dealing with various rodents, moles and insect-like insects such as the bear. A peculiar trap for slugs and snails can serve as plaques spread on the ground between plants, heaps of grass, cabbage leaves, where pests are picked up for the daytime. Then they can easily be collected by simply turning the boards or raking grass and leaves. For catching a bear and its larvae in a similar way, you can lay piles of manure in small holes, into which pests will hide. Then heaps get out of the holes and destroy pests.

    Film rings against the bear

    It is known that the bear sweeps its underground passages at a depth of 3-5 cm from the surface, and thus the delicate rootlets of young plants turn out to be in the zone of damage. To protect them from the bear in the truest sense of the word can be with the help of film rings. To do this, it is necessary to cut strips of 40 x 10 cm from a dense polyethylene film, fold them with a ring and fasten the ends to an overlap. This ring should be placed in the well prepared for the planting of the plant and in the center of the ring plant the plant, as usual. A ring of this size will not interfere with the growth of the root system and at the same time will serve as an obstacle for the bear who, having come across a barrier, will bypass it without damaging the roots of the plant. In the autumn, when digging, the rings are taken out of the ground.

    To protect against damage by slugs of individual plants, they can be surrounded by a ring, spilling out dry mineral fertilizers, for example potassium salt, superphosphate, or slaked lime, lime mixed with ash or tobacco dust. Slugs and snails can not overcome this border around the plant, since these substances act burning on their skin.

    metal mesh, , which surrounds tree trunks, baskets, , can be used as a mechanical protection against pests in the trees, in which tubers and bulbs of plants are planted before planting to save them from moles and shrew mice, as well as various undergroundobstacles, bordering access to pests to plant roots.

    Deterrents for and plants, whose odor irritates them, can serve as a deterrent against pests, in particular rodents, .

    : - Repellent moles are turntables on the poles stuck into the ground. They are rotated by the wind, causing a vibration of the pole, which is transmitted to the ground. A small tremor of soil repels moles.

    A proven method of scaring away birds from sediments of different crops - ratchets, spinning on poles under the influence of wind. They can also be made from shiny paper and with a fringed fringe that is winded to the wind, which will have an additional deterrent effect.

    The classic way of scaring away birds is a different kind of garden stuffed. Fantasy at their manufacture knows no bounds, some become real masterpieces, and even if birds do not fear our scarecrow, it can become a good decoration of the site.

    To protect the fruit from fruit trees on fruit trees, special thin grids, , will be used to attack the tree crown and fasten at the trunk so that the birds can not fly under the net.

    The simplest methods of combating pests in the earth are the deep digging and the constant loosening of the rows, thus destroying even the deep holes and holes of pests. So, for example, horizontal caves and nests of the bear, located at a depth of 5-10 cm, can be destroyed only by digging. Therefore, in May-June, when the young rootlets of plants are especially attractive for this pest, regular deep loosening of the rows should be carried out regularly.

    The destruction of weeds near crops that are being attacked by pests also plays an indirect role in the fight against certain types of pests. Thus, in the foci of possible accumulation of wireworms, it is necessary to thoroughly destroy the grass of the creeper by selecting all its long-standing rhizomes. Next to cultures that are attractive to slugs and snails, it is necessary to cut out all the grass that creates a shadow, retains moisture and therefore serves as a haven for pests in the hot time of the day.

    Biological pest management

    The basis of most biological methods is, firstly, the natural interconnection of living creatures in nature, the predator-victim relationship and the natural balance of harmful organisms that are harmful to humans, and secondly, the reaction of pests to chemical or physical pathogens andirritants such as sound, light, hormones that inhibit the development of harmful organisms, and sex hormones - pheromones, which allow to regulate the activity of pests.

    chinks, caterpillars and due to their size can exterminate them very much. Birds need quiet conditions to nest and take out chicks, so it is necessary to leave loose bushes in the garden so that in their depth between the branches the birds can feel safe. Also suitable are various bird houses and birdhouses. For the winter on such trees and bushes, as ashberry, chokeberry, raspberry, elderberry, it is necessary to leave berries, which birds can feed in winter. Feathered garden protectors will also be grateful to you for the feeders on the site and small drinkers for birds.

    The definition of "useful" or "harmful" this or that living entity is always carried out from the point of view of the person and is oriented toward his interests. Sometimes the boundary between them is very unstable. The use of chemical means of protection kills both harmful and useful organisms and prevents the establishment of biological equilibrium in the garden.