First Aid to Children
May 22, 2018
Contusions of most often occur when a child falls or strikes a solid object. In this case, damage to subcutaneous tissue and soft tissues is observed. The bruise can be combined with more severe injuries - ligamentous apparatus disorders, concussion, fracture of bones.
Signs of a bruise are pain, swelling, bruising, slight impairment of function. If the ligamentous apparatus is damaged, the pain and impairment of the function of the arm or leg is more pronounced.
First aid is to apply cold to the bruised part of the body( ice pack, towel soaked in cold water).If the extremity is severely bruised, a pressure bandage must be applied, to ensure peace, immobility, elevated position. To reduce pain, you can give analgin or amidopyrine. Extensive contusion requires treatment in a medical institution.
Brain concussion can occur with a head injury: loss of consciousness, vomiting, pallor of the skin, superficial breathing, rapid pulse.
First aid is to create complete peace. The child should be laid on his back, his head slightly raised. If he is unconscious, then the head must be turned gently to one side, the tongue should be pulled out and held by the tip, so that it does not cause choking and the vomit is not inhaled. It is urgent to call a doctor.
joint dislocation can occur as a result of a child falling or bumping into the joint area. In this case, the bones entering the joint, the rupture or extension of the capsule of the joint, the damage to the vessels, nerves occur. Dislocation is characterized by pain in the area of the damaged joint, its deformation, limitation of mobility and forced position of the limb.
First aid is to ensure the immobility of the injured limb: when the upper limb is dislocated, the child's arm must be suspended on a kerchief, the lower one - to put the child on a stretcher, covering the damaged leg with pillows, blankets, clothes. You can not try to correct the dislocation by yourself. The child should be urgently delivered to a medical institution. When transporting the patient to change the position of the limb, which it was after the dislocation, it is impossible.
bone fractures can occur as a result of a fall, when jumping, striking an object. With a fracture, severe pain, changes in the shape of the limb, limited mobility, and sometimes abnormal mobility at the site of the fracture. In severe cases, there may be a displacement of bone fragments, a violation of the integrity of the skin( fractures with displacement, open fracture), a traumatic shock may develop.
First aid consists in applying a fixative bandage, with an open fracture - a sterile dressing, if necessary - in stopping bleeding with a harness, applying a tire. As a tire, you can use a board, a stick, thick cardboard, rods that wrap with cotton, cloth or clothing. The tire is applied very carefully, so as not to cause additional damage and sharp pain. In the absence of a tire, the injured arm can be pribintovat to the trunk, and the leg - to a healthy leg. In all cases, fix at least two joints( above and below the fracture).The injured child must be delivered as soon as possible to a medical institution.
Before sending to the hospital, he can give an anesthetic( analgin, amidopirin).
Damage to the internal organs, closed and open, occur when falling from a height, a strong injury, and as a result of traffic accidents. Pulmonary tissue is damaged in fractures of the ribs, collarbone. Open chest damage can occur as a result of an injury caused by a sharp or stabbing object( scissors, knitting needles, a metal rod, a crochet hook, etc.).At the same time, air penetrates into the thoracic cavity, displaces its organs, can cause shock, possibly injury of the heart.
First aid is to apply a circular bandage to the chest. In case of open trauma, a piece of oilcloth( better oiled with petrolatum) is applied over the sterile napkin, which prevents the entry of air into the chest cavity. To reduce pain, give analgin. The child should be urgently delivered to a medical institution. Transportation is carried out in a semi-sitting position.
With closed injuries of the abdominal cavity of , bruising, swelling, muscle tension, abdominal pain, vomiting, and sometimes shock are observed. With open injuries of the abdominal wall, the gland and bowel loops may fall into the wound.
It is necessary to create a complete rest for the victim, put a cold on the stomach, open the wound with a sterile bandage( the organs can not be dropped).The child should be rushed to a medical institution, transported in a horizontal position. No medicines and drink can not be given.
Foreign bodies, , which are foreign to the body, penetrated into tissues through natural openings( respiratory tract, ear, eye) or through a wound, are noted quite often in young children.
Pieces of food, fish bones, seeds of plants, various small objects( parts of toys, barrettes, pins, tips of pens, pencils, etc.) can enter the respiratory tract. Foreign body entry occurs unexpectedly, usually during eating, which is facilitated by laughter, crying, fright, coughing. In the respiratory tract, food particles may fall during vomiting, regurgitation. Most often there are cases of objects falling into the larynx. In this case, a healthy child suddenly has a sharp paroxysmal cough, develops suffocation, sometimes with loss of consciousness, cyanosis of the skin of the face, sharply hindered( stenotic) breathing.
Small foreign bodies during a deep breath can get to the voice gap, the trachea, bronchi. Foreign bodies of pointed and angular shape can wedge into the mucous membrane of the larynx. In this case, there is a pain in the throat, an admixture of blood in the sputum. These cases are most dangerous, because at first the child remains free breathing, and after a few hours, choking may occur. When a foreign body enters the trachea and bronchi, breathing is less affected, the cough can also calm down, and parents often do not seek medical help, which subsequently leads to the development of severe bronchial and lung diseases.
First aid in case of foreign body entry into the respiratory tract is the immediate delivery of the child to a medical institution.
If a foreign body( fish bones, toy particles, etc.) gets into the pharynx, it is also necessary to consult a doctor, do not try to remove it yourself. You can not knock the child on the back in the expectation that the foreign body "will pass".It can only penetrate deeper into the pharyngeal wall and cause its damage.
A foreign body that has fallen into the ear( beads, peas, small toy suits, insects, etc.) may be located in the cartilaginous part of the ear canal, and if the tympanic membrane is damaged, the drum cavity. Removal of foreign bodies is carried out by a doctor-specialist. When crawling into the ear of insects, the child experiences painful sensations, severe itching. In this case, it is necessary to kill the insect, pour 8-10 drops of heated oil( sunflower, vaseline, olive) or glycerin into the external ear canal. If a swelling foreign body( pea, a piece of wood, plugs) has got into the ear, several drops of alcohol must be poured into the external auditory meatus to dehydrate and wrinkle the foreign body.
A foreign body from the nose can be tried to extract by blowing it out. In this case, the child should close his finger with a healthy nostril and offer a strong blow to his nose. If there is no result, you should contact a specialist.
Attempts to remove a foreign body from the ear or nose with the help of any tools can lead to a deeper penetration of the body with damage to adjacent tissues( eg perforation of the tympanic membrane).
If a foreign body( sand grains, particles of coal, metal, etc.) gets into the eye, there is a strong burning sensation, lacrimation, photophobia. Removal of the foreign body is carried out by an oculist. Do not wash your eyes yourself. If the eyelid is injured at the same time, it is necessary to carefully clean it with a tampon moistened with hydrogen peroxide, gently lubricate the edges of the wound with a 1% solution of brilliant green, apply a sterile bandage and deliver the baby to the eye doctor.
Burns are a fairly common type of injury in young children. The most frequent thermal burns are caused by exposure to high temperature( touching a hot object, exposure to hot liquid, flame, etc.).Chemical burns occur when children have access to acids( acetic essences, hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid) or caustic alkalis( caustic soda).Electric burns occur when exposed to electric current( open sockets, bare wire), as well as when struck by lightning.
If the burn covers a large body surface area, a burn shock develops, at the beginning of which the child is sharply agitated and then inhibited. At the same time, pallor of the skin, a shallow breathing, a rapid pulse, a decrease in blood pressure are noted. In young children, a shock can develop with a burn injury even 3-5% of the body surface.
With superficial burns, the first help is to cool the burnt surface with a stream of running water for 15-20 minutes, which causes the vessels to narrow and prevents the formation of bubbles. The same action has a bandage with a solution of potassium permanganate( manganese), which "blows" the skin. With deeper and extensive burns, a sterile bandage is applied to the damaged area. In all cases, the child is rushed to hospital. Before transportation it is necessary to give painkillers, warm the child.
Solar burn is a kind of thermal. It develops with prolonged stay of the child under direct sunlight. The baby becomes sluggish, sleeps badly, loses appetite. On the skin there are sharp redness, tenderness, swelling, in some cases - blisters. The body temperature rises.
Immediately stop staying in the sun, give the victim plenty of drink, create peace. The affected surface of the skin is smeared with baby cream, vegetable oil, protected from the sun until all the symptoms disappear. When blistering, you can apply a bandage with a solution of potassium permanganate for 5-10 minutes. Opened blisters are treated with aseptic ointments as prescribed by the doctor.
In burns with acid solution, the affected surface should be poured with plenty of water for 10-15 minutes, and then rinse with a weak solution of alkali( 1 tablespoon of baking soda to a glass of water).With burns with a solution of alkali, the surface is also washed with a large amount of water( 10-15 min), then moistened with a weak solution( 1-2%) of acetic or citric acid.
Electric burn occurs not only on the spot of direct current influence, but also on the way of its passage through the body. There are three types of burns: signs of current( in the surface layers of the skin), contact burns and thermal burns, which damage all layers of soft tissues and bones. The area and depth of damage depend on the magnitude of the voltage. Burns caused by an electric current, have one feature - they are painless. But in doing so, the child develops more pronounced common phenomena - there may be fainting, stopping breathing, cramps and even a shock condition. With severe damage, instant death may occur.
The first help is to immediately isolate the child from the impact of the electric current( switch off the switch, unscrew the plug).If the current is not disconnected, do not touch the injured bare hands. It is necessary to put on rubber gloves, wrap your hands with silk or woolen cloth or use a dry wooden stick. It is necessary to stand on a dry board, glass or in rubber boots. Then, if necessary, the victim is given artificial respiration, inhaled ammonia, ground with cologne, and warmed. Place a sterile bandage on the burn. The patient must be urgently sent to a medical institution.
After electrical trauma for a long time children have increased nervousness, irritability, fearfulness, poor sleep, fast fatigue. These children require special attention and careful attitude.
Subcooling as a result of exposure to a low ambient temperature can be expressed in frost, frostbite and freezing. When refreshing, the skin( most often on the hands and feet) becomes denser, acquires a red or cyanotic-purple color. Fertility is most often noted in the spring and autumn with cold wet weather.
Frostbite is observed in children weakened( even at O ° C), in those who wear tight shoes, with prolonged exposure to frost. Most often, the fingers and toes, the ears, the tip of the nose are damaged.
With short-term effects of cold after warming, the skin reddens and swells, pain and burning appear, after 2-3 days they pass. In the case of prolonged exposure to cold, the skin will suddenly turn pale, then bubbles appear with a light or bloody fluid;in severe cases, the necrosis of soft tissues and even bones may occur, gangrene may develop.
First aid for refreshing is to warm the limbs at normal room temperature, massage helps well. When the hands or feet frostbite, they are carefully uncovered and placed in a warm( 18-20 ° C) water, gently massaging from the fingers upwards. Slowly, for 20-30 minutes, the water temperature is adjusted to 37 ° C.Then, the skin is gently wiped with soaking movements, rubbed with alcohol, a dry sterile dressing is applied and warm wrapped. Frozen ears, nose and cheeks warm, rubbing in circular motions. It is impossible to wash the frost-bitten place with snow, since ice can scratch the skin, it is better to do this with a hand or with a woolen mitten. Heavy frostbites are treated in the hospital.
When the freezes, the body temperature decreases, the skin turns pale, the pulse is cut, the child loses consciousness, the stiffening of the body may occur. Frequent complications of freezing are inflammation of the lungs, kidneys, digestive disorders, psyche, memory impairment.
First aid is warming the child in a bath with a water temperature of 37 ° C, carrying out a massage, then giving the child hot drink, food, laid in a warmed bed. In all cases, the child should be urgently shown to the doctor.
The poisoning of is caused by a poisonous substance( through the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, skin, mucous membranes).Poisoning can occur with acids, alkalis, medications, etc. In young children, it is often impossible to determine which substance caused the poisoning, so in all cases of poisoning by an unidentified poison that comes through the mouth, irrespective of the time of the incident, rinse the stomach with plenty of water or callvomiting, then give hot tea, warm the baby.
If you can not wash the stomach, give the child plenty of milk, jelly, mucous broths, i.e. foods that envelop the mucous membrane of the stomach. It is urgent to go to a medical institution.
Suppose you know that a child has swallowed acid, then add soda or burnt magnesia( 30 grams per 200 ml of water) to wash water, and if alkali - a weak solution of vinegar( 100 ml of 6% solution per 1 liter of water).In both cases, it is useful to add ice pieces to the drink.
In case of carbon monoxide poisoning, the victim is urgently taken to fresh air, and is allowed to sniff ammonia alcohol. He needs hospitalization.
The bites of poisonous animals can cause painful disorders and even death. If a child is bitten by a bee or wasp, it is necessary to carefully remove the sting and apply a bandage with ammonia. You can not apply to the site of the bite the ground, because in this case the infection is introduced into the wound. When biting and introducing a forest mite, one should not try to remove it mechanically, because its head can remain in the skin of the child and cause inflammation. In this case, you should grease the infected mite several times with vegetable oil or any fat cream, which will lead to its death. Then the insect is easily removed by swinging movements.
If a child has been bitten by a snake or a rabid animal, it is necessary to urgently go to a medical institution for special treatment( serum injection, vaccination).
drowning can occur both when the whole body is submerged in water, or when only the nose and mouth are dipped( in small ponds, puddles, in a tub, a barrel with water, etc.).
In such cases, it is necessary to expose the upper part of the victim's body, if possible, quickly clean his mouth and throat from sand, silt and other, remove water from the respiratory tract. To do this, the child is opened his mouth, with his index finger, wrapped in cloth, removes foreign bodies as much as possible from him, the tongue is pulled out of his mouth and held by a loop from a bandage, a handkerchief. Then the baby is put on his knee with his stomach, so that his legs and head are hanging down and pounding on the back( you can take them by the legs and keep them upside down).If the water is gone and breathing is not restored, do artificial respiration, in the absence of a heartbeat - massage the heart. When the child starts to breathe well and comes to himself, it must be warmed, drunk with hot strong coffee or tea and taken to a medical institution.
Asphyxiation may occur when the child pokes his head between the cot crests, the fence, when playing with a rope, jumping, falling. A kid can get his head into a loop from a suspended toy for up to a year( so never hang a toy on a double loop, but only on a single one!).
Have the child in distress immediately stop the mechanical squeezing. If breathing has not recovered, make artificial ventilation( artificial respiration).Then the child should be warmed and quickly delivered to a medical institution.
Acute diseases of the of a child are often accompanied by such violations that require emergency care.
Increased body temperature is often accompanied by diseases of the upper respiratory tract, lungs, gastrointestinal tract. It is the first sign of many acute infectious diseases. In all cases of body temperature rise in a child, it is necessary to call a doctor at home. If the temperature is higher than 38.5 ° C before the doctor comes, the baby can be given one dose of antipyretic medicine( aspirin, analgin, taking into account the child's age).At occurrence of a fever of the kid it is necessary to cover well, put to the feet a hot-water bottle( water temperature 45 ° С), to give hot tea( with lemon, crushed cranberries, honey if the child does not have allergy).Chill usually ends with a plentiful sweat. In this case, the child should be wiped dry and change the bed linen and bed linen.
Sometimes children in high temperature may have seizures. In this case, you need to call an ambulance. Give the patient a febrifuge, put a cold lotion on his head. Take care that the child does not fall down, do not bite your tongue.
Influenza, acute respiratory infections in young children can sometimes be complicated by a sharp breathing disorder, the so-called false croup. It develops more often at night, suddenly, begins with an attack of barking cough and shortness of breath. The child becomes frightened, rushes, the voice becomes hoarse, viscous sputum coughs with difficulty. Emergency assistance consists in creating a calm environment, ensuring access of fresh air. The child should be given a warm alkaline drink, make warm foot baths, put mustard plasters on the upper part of the thorax. You can use a long inhalation of a warm alkaline solution( 2 teaspoons baking soda for 1 liter of water).After providing first aid, the child must be hospitalized.
Abdominal pain is one of the serious symptoms of an acute infectious, intestinal disease, poisoning, appendicitis, etc. In case of pain in the abdomen, you should urgently call a doctor. Prior to his arrival, it is strictly forbidden to give the child painkillers, laxatives, put an enema, put on the warmer on the stomach, as this can lead to serious complications. The child must be put in bed, you can drink water( tea).If he is very excited, give the tincture of valerian.
Syncope - sudden and short-term loss of consciousness, a sensitivity disorder. The most predisposed to fainting are anemic children with an easily erectile nervous system.
Fainting can occur as a result of painful sensations, as a result of fright, fear of the expected pain. At the same time the child pales, there is a cold sweat, dizziness, there is a loss of consciousness, the pupils are dilated. After a few seconds or minutes, consciousness returns.
When is given first aid to a child, , when fainting, give it a horizontal position with slightly elevated legs, ensure an influx of fresh air. Unbind tight clothes, you can give sniff ammonia. After the return of consciousness to the child, water it with a tincture of valerian( 5-10 drops with a little cold water), put in bed. In the future, the child should consult a doctor.