Planting perennial herbaceous plants
May 22, 2018
Spring is a favorable time for planting perennial floral plants. They are bought in containers with a well developed root system or divide old overgrown bushes of perennials and plant the pieces into a new place. The rules for planting shrubs of flower and ornamental crops have practically no significant differences from the general rules for planting plants.
Watering is one of the most important activities to ensure the viability of plants.
The task of irrigation should be solved in combination with the problem of achieving optimal water permeability of the soil. Insufficient water permeability of heavy and compacted clay soils leads to the fact that moisture is retained in the upper layer of the soil, causing stagnant phenomena, and does not reach the roots of plants. In this case, the plant can decay from superficial moisture, while experiencing an acute shortage of moisture. In addition, water, remaining in the upper layer of the soil, quickly evaporates from its surface, causing cracking. To increase the permeability of heavy soils, sand, compost, peat should be added to them.
Light sandy soils dry much faster than clay soils, so they should be watered more often in the drought period. With increased water permeability of the soil, the moisture rapidly penetrates deep into the root layer, only slightly staying in the root layer, and the plants also suffer from a shortage of moisture, since their roots are unable to get it from the deep soil layer. The ability of the soil to accumulate moisture can be increased by applying pulverized silica and compost. In this regard, the main task of providing plants with moisture is not only the process of irrigation itself, but also the creation1 by improving the soil structure of the soil medium with optimum water permeability.
Water dissolves nutrients and trace elements contained in the soil, and makes them available to plant roots in the form of a soil solution. Moisture is a part of
Water in the form of rain or artificial irrigation gets into the soil, absorbed, seeps into the aquifer, leaves in the atmosphere in the form of fumes from the soil surface. The moisture trapped by the soil comes through the root system to the plants and is used by them for their livelihoods, which is up to two thirds of the
atmospheric precipitation of plant tissues, many vegetables on 95-97 % are water and therefore can not replenish the required amountfrom the amount of precipitation, especially if they are not regular. Long absence of moisture causes suppression of growth, provokes the appearance of diseases and often leads to the death of the plant. Moisture is especially necessary for plants during the most active development of plants: during the initial growth, flowering and the formation of fruits. If at this time the plant suffers a lack of moisture, its fruits suffer greatly, radish and radish acquire a bitter sharp taste, cucumbers start to be bitter, tomatoes burst, kohlrabi and radish rustle. Lack of natural moisture should be filled with regular watering, which is a necessary measure for caring for any kinds of crops.
Water for irrigation
There are a number of requirements for irrigation water, which should be noted, the main ones are: water purity, absence of toxic impurities and foreign inclusions, low content of salts and minerals, neutral or slightly acid acid reaction. In modern garden areas for irrigation, tap water is often used from a common water supply network, well water or water from a well entering the sections through a network of pipes, water from a nearby pond, that is, river or lake, and rainwater. Each type of water has its own characteristics and characteristics, allowing you to determine the degree of its suitability for irrigation.
Tap water undergoes filtration and various purification steps, which makes it suitable for drinking. Suitable water for irrigation, although it should be noted that the content of mineral substances in it is very small and during the season, the chlorine content can significantly increase. Well water or water from the well, on the contrary, is characterized by a high content of salts and minerals, as it passes through the earth, it ishes valuable microelements, which is a good indicator for water. However, the mineral content of water should not be too high, otherwise it will become unsuitable for watering plants. Water from the reservoir is considered to be the least favorable type of irrigation water, since there is a high risk of toxic waste, chemicals, rotting products, bacteria, foreign inclusions and other hazardous impurities. Special mention should be made of the rainwater. It is much softer than tap water, usually has a virtually neutral acid reaction, in addition, it has extremely high dissolved oxygen content. All these qualities make rainwater very valuable for plants and justify the need for its collection. However, it should be borne in mind that in extremely polluted environments, harmful chemicals inevitably fall into rainwater, heavy metals, combustion products of liquid and solid fuels in the form of soot and droplets of oily liquid, calcareous dust, imparting rigidity to water, which undoubtedly reduces the valuerainwater. In order to minimize the pollution of rainwater and the associated risks, it is necessary to comply with Barrel for rainwater harvesting
A drainage device is attached to the drainage system to assemble the water, the is equipped with a staple that regulates the entry of the drums into the barrel. In dry weather, it is recommended to provide a number of rules related to its collection for the safety of the
animal children. Rainwater collecting tanks are usually installed under the drainpipes and gutters, which means that before it enters the barrel, water flows down the roof, washing off the dust, chemical compounds, soot and tad that have settled on it. The water of the first precipitation is heavily polluted after a long period of drought, since the amount of dirt accumulated on the roofs is particularly large, therefore rainwater should not be collected if there was no rain for a long time. If the rain is strong and protracted, you can refuse the volume of water falling out in the first 30 minutes, this time is enough to wash off the roof of the main dust containing harmful impurities. After that, the water can be completely collected in a container. In order to be able to regulate the flow of water into the barrel, it is recommended to install a valve in the header, which can be closed by directing water from the drainpipe to the ground, when it is not desirable to collect it in a container for various reasons.
Stiffness is a property of water, due to the presence in it of calcium and magnesium salts sometimes in combination with iron salts. Depending on the type of compounds present in the water, the water hardness is divided into a temporary and a constant. The temporary hardness of water causes the content of hydrocarbonates in it, and it is eliminated by boiling. The constant rigidity is due to the presence of calcium and magnesium in water. This type of stiffness is an intrinsic property of water and is not completely eliminated. The use of hard water leads to precipitation of a solid sediment, with constant stiffness less harmful to plants than temporary. The use of water with constant rigidity serves as a source of supply of plants with such valuable microelements, as calcium and magnesium. Regular intake of calcium positively affects the metabolic processes, activates the activity of microorganisms and improves soil structure. In addition, the constant hardness of water practically does not change the acidity level of the soil. Temporary or hydrocarbonate hardness of water, if it is high enough, on the contrary, causes a violation of the acid-base balance of the soil in the direction of increasing the content of alkaline compounds. This especially negatively affects plants that require acidic soils: their roots darken, acquire an unhealthy brown color, and show signs of chlorosis. Therefore, too hard water for irrigation should be softened by the addition of hydrated lime or oxalic acid, which, after reacting chemically with an alkaline medium, will precipitate mineral substances.
Rules and principles of irrigation
The first rule of watering is that it should not be watered very often, but is abundant. Watering every day little by little does not make any sense, because water remains in the surface layer of the soil and the roots of plants can not take advantage of it. In addition, water quickly evaporates from the surface, and plants lose it. When watering the soil should be soaked with moisture 20-25 cm deep, so that water saturation occurs at the level of deep root layers. In this case, even with the dried surface of the soil, the roots of the plants will be in a moist soil environment and will not suffer from a temporary lack of moisture.
The frequency of irrigation depends on the soil structure and its ability to retain moisture, weather conditions and the requirements of specific crops for the amount of moisture that can be very different.
To water any kinds of crops it is necessary gradually in some receptions, whenever possible not time returning to already polished place. This is necessary in order that moisture can be completely absorbed into the ground, soften it and make it susceptible to receiving a new portion of water. In the process of gradual irrigation, the soil acquires a sponge structure, the water does not slip off its surface and does not spread out to the sides, but seeps into the depths, saturating the lower layers.
It is important not to miss the moment when watering should be done. Not always dry soil surface signals the need for watering, since the ground at the root depth can be moist and additional moisturizing is not required.
Monitoring of soil moisture level
It is desirable that soil moisture is kept at a constant level without sudden changes in waterlogging and drying which adversely affect the condition of the soil and plants. The constant moisture content of the soil can be maintained by regular uniform watering in the absence of precipitation. The indicator of the moisture content in the soil is its state at a depth of 25-30 cm, to verify which it follows the blade to make a well of the required depth. This simple test will make it possible to conclude how much the soil needs to be watered: if the soil is dry or only slightly damp at a depth of 25-30 cm, then it's time to water
. However, in a number of vegetable, flower and ornamental crops, the root system is located finely in the upper soil layer, and for such plants, superficial drying is very dangerous, since they are not able to use moisture from deep layers. The rate and frequency of irrigation depends on the type of culture and the depth of the root system of the plant.
** Plants should be watered regularly and necessarily abundantly, perhaps in several ways, so that the water soaks the soil layers, to a depth of at least 25-30 cm to the lower root area of the plants. With insignificant ,
surface watering, the water does not reach the main volume of the root system, and a crust forms on the soil surface. In addition, when surface watering of the plant, trying to get moisture, develop lateral surface roots, which, due to shallow occurrence, suffer greatly in the dry period.
. Water the crops under the root so that water feeds directly to the root of the plant and does not damage its leafy part.as many cultures are extremely sensitive to dampness, which provokes the emergence and development of fungal diseases.
Basic rules for watering
It is better to water one time than several times a little.
Water gradually, in a few receptions, giving the water a good soak.
Watering of severely parched areas should be carried out repeatedly at short intervals, gradually restoring soil sorption.
The most favorable for watering early morning or late evening.
It is absolutely forbidden to water under the scorching sun or in the heat of a hot day.
Try not to water the plants with too cold water, it causes shock to the plant In addition, the root system of the plant is less absorbing cold water.
If possible, water crops, especially the most sensitive ones, with warm water that has stayed warm. For this purpose, the rainwater that has warmed up in the barrel is ideal.
When watering from a hose, it is necessary to monitor the pressure of water so that the jet does not break the top layer of the soil, does not wash the ground and plants.
Watering plants should be under the root, moistening the root area of plants.
Try not to wet the leafy part of plants, as water droplets in the sun act like lenses and cause tissue burns, and increased leaf moisture leads to the development of fungal diseases, especially in susceptible cultures.
To take into account the individual needs of crops in water, calculating the rate of irrigation, which directly depends on the type of culture and the depth of the location of its Root System.
The most favorable moment for watering is the early morning, when the land has cooled down overnight and moistened with dew, and the air temperature is not high. Suitable for watering and evening hours, although hot earth and hot air cause unwanted evaporation of moisture. In no event can you water in the sun, especially on hot days. Such watering is not only useless, but it can also damage plants, since the emerging contrast between the water temperature and the deciduous hardwood and root mass causes a shock in the
plant, which can cause its development to be suppressed. In addition, droplets of water on the foliage and stems of plants in the sun act as lenses, which can cause burn of plant tissues, damage and drying of leaf plates.
Particular care should be taken when watering newly planted young plants. On the one hand, they must be carefully poured to make contact with the soil and the rooting was successful, but on the other hand, it is impossible to fill them, since the root system with a lot.sucking the moisture roots only formed and the plant, unable to absorb large amounts of water. In order not to cause rotting processes in the root and stalk areas of young plants, it is desirable to water them often and in a little bit
It is very important not only to supply the soil with moisture, but also to help it to retain it. The most tested ways of preserving moisture in the soil are mulching and loosening of soil after irrigation. The mulching layer of from organic materials significantly reduces the evaporation of moisture from the soil surface, retains soil moisture and for a long time keeps the soil in a loose wet state. If you build up the mulching layer, beds with plantings can be left without watering even during the holiday. Loosening also significantly reduces the evaporation of soil moisture, since it destroys the thin capillaries, through which water from the lower layers is fed to the soil surface and then evaporates. If the soil is loosened after watering, the bond between the lower layers and the surface will be destroyed and moisture will remain in the soil until the capillary tubes are restored. Thus, loosening not only enriches the soil with oxygen, facilitating its access, but also helps maintain a fairly stable soil moisture.
Evergreen trees have special needs: In the water, as they continue to evaporate moisture, in winter, when other plants are at rest. Especially intensive evaporation occurs on sunny winter days, and often the reason for the backlog in growth and drying of coniferous evergreens is the lack of moisture in soil and plant tissues. Thus, evergreens need moisture even in winter, and they need to be thoroughly poured several times before nietgugenschena.halodav and then in the spring, as soon as the snow comes down. In warm areas where the soil thaws early or does not Freeze in the cold season, you can repeat watering during the winter.