Pyelonephritis: symptoms, causes and treatment
Infection penetrates deep tissues of the pelvis and kidneys downward( through the blood), or ascending( through the ureter) pathway.
Hematogenous( or descending) pathogens get into the blood in purulent diseases - tonsillitis, bronchitis, furunculosis, osteomyelitis, and then spread all over the body and enter the kidneys. The causative agents of infection in this case are staphylococci, streptococci and other bacteria.
The urinary( or upstream) path of infection into the kidneys is associated with urinary tract disease, which makes urination difficult( with an abnormality in the structure of the urinary tract, prostate adenoma, stones, tumors, pregnancy).Often the ascending path is associated with the E. coli and the ingestion of the intestinal bacterium into the ureter.
In healthy kidneys, when an infection through the blood enters, the inflammatory process rarely develops. Most often, the descending and ascending type of infection spreads. Acute pyelonephritis is one of the most common kidney diseases( 10-15% of all kidney diseases).Most common are middle-aged, young adults and children.
Pyelonephritis is classified into types - one-sided( if one kidney is affected) and bilateral( if two kidneys are affected).Acute pyelonephritis can have two forms - primary, if the focus of infection develops in the urinary system, as well as secondary due to other infectious diseases in the body.
Pyelonephritis is non-obstructive and obstructive( when urinary tracts are blocked).Acute pyelonephritis is serous or purulent.
In turn purulent pyelonephritis is divided into the following types: focal, diffuse, with an abscess. Purulent inflammatory processes in the kidneys suffer up to 30% of patients.
This insidious disease poses a threat to human life and health, since serious complications can occur! That's why at the first symptoms, consult a doctor, and do not self-medicate.
Causes of acute pyelonephritis
Often acute pyelonephritis occurs as a result of the inflammatory process in the body and the rapid spread of pathogenic microbes.
The cause may be inflammatory processes in any organ. Sometimes in winter, against a cold, acute pyelonephritis develops, accompanied by the same common symptoms as influenza, acute respiratory disease and bronchitis.
Causes of the disease:
- diseases of the urinary system( cystitis, inflammation of the bladder, urethra);
- infectious diseases( acute bronchitis, tonsillitis, runny nose, osteomyelitis, furunculosis);
- infection of the genitourinary system;
- intestinal bacterium;
- inadequate outflow of urine associated with abnormal structure or other diseases;
- kidney stones.
Symptoms of pyelonephritis
Acute pyelonephritis, the main symptom of which manifests itself as a pain syndrome in the lower back or side. Pain can radiate into the back or other organs.
Appears strong nausea due to intoxication, vomiting, fever causes chills, headache and tremor. If the passage is broken( outflow of urine), it leads to intoxication of the body.
In addition, acute pyelonephritis is accompanied by other signs - there is vomiting, weakness, severe sweating, tachycardia, dry mouth, adynamia. The pyogenic infection, entering the urinary tract, causes the appearance of pustules on the walls of the kidney. This leads to severe pain and kidney colic. Urinalysis always shows the presence of mucus, pus, an increase in the number of white blood cells and ESR in the urine.
Clinical signs of acute pyelonephritis:
- severe pain or renal colic;
- high body temperature;
- chills, weakness, tachycardia, headache;
- nausea, vomiting;
- violation of urine outflow.
Diagnosis of pyelonephritis
A urologist appoints a comprehensive kidney examination to determine the possibility of its functioning and the degree of injury. Ultrasound, X-ray, and radioisotope examination are performed. Urine analysis is performed for Nechiporenko and Ambiurge, and daily urine by the Addis-Kakovski method is also studied.
Pyelonephritis is characterized by leukocyturia, bacteriuria, albuminuria. In urine, a certain amount of blood can be detected only with papillary necrosis or renal colic. The diagnosis is confirmed in the event that in the urine are found 50 - 100 thousand microbial substances.
The specific gravity always remains unchanged, as the functions of the tubules remain, and liquid is extracted through the lungs and skin, which leads to an increase in the specific gravity of the urine. Illustrative in acute pyelonephritis is leukocytosis and increased content of ESR.
X-ray shows the absence of lumbar contour, enlarged kidney size, tissue heterogeneity, kidney immobility and decreased functional activity. Chromocystoscopy determines the ability of the kidney to excrete indigocarmine. Dynamic procedure of scintigraphy allows to reveal carbuncle of the kidney and the degree of its damage with the help of contrast X-ray material.
A urologist can prescribe a diagnosis of the symptoms and complaints of the patient. At a palpation and поколачивании on the party of the amazed kidney in the field of a loin the pain amplifies. Common symptoms include chills, headache, fever, and local symptoms include pain syndrome, which is aggravated by movement and palpation.
Treatment of pyelonephritis
Primary acute pyelonephritis is treated with a conservative method.
Recommended a restful bed rest with a plentiful drink, a diet rich in carbohydrates, fiber and dairy products. If there is no hypertension, you can consume a small amount of salt. As medicines prescribe antibacterial agents, conduct detoxification of the body, immunostimulating therapy.
For the speedy recovery of the patient, a test is carried out for the sensitivity of bacteria in the urine to antibiotics and prescribe adequate treatment with effective antibiotics. If it is not possible to establish the causative agent of the foci of infection in the urine, then the antibiotic used earlier was effective. Therefore, the doctor continues treatment with the same drug, or he prescribes a universal broad-spectrum antibiotic.
Medical preparations for the treatment of acute pyelonephritis:
- has become wet;
- sulfonamide preparations;
- nitrofuran preparations;
- derivatives of naphthyridine and oxyquinoline preparations;
- antibiotics( cefazolin, ampicillin, cefuroxime, kanamycin disulfate);
- vitamins, aloe extract, immunomodulators.
The reason for this or that disease may be our mental perception of the environment. Let us note that psychologist Louise Hay recommends the following affirmations, that is, mental treatment from the wrong psychological insistence of
"In my life, only what is prescribed by the divine harvesting takes place. All this leads only to positive results each time. "However, prayers and meditations are necessary first of all after the removal of a strong inflammatory process.
Pyelonephritis in children - symptoms and treatment
Disease appears in children due to pathologies of mother's pregnancy, abnormalities of the urinary tract of the child, persistent infectious diseases of ARVI, with gynecological ailments in girls. Often pyelonephritis in children develops after otitis, tonsillitis, scarlet fever and other infectious diseases.
Symptoms of the disease are the same as in adults. Urine becomes turbid, intoxication is manifested by fever, chills, nausea, vomiting. Babies may have symptoms of meningitis, in particular tension of the occipital muscles. The inflammatory process manifests itself more clearly and actively. The main diagnostic index of the disease is urinalysis.
With a curative purpose, suitable antibiotics must be prescribed. Prescribed bed rest. Recommended diet with restriction of foods that irritate the kidneys - onions, peppers, smoked meat, garlic. It is necessary to increase the amount of fluid consumed to 50% of the norm.
To strengthen the effectiveness of antibiotics, use uroseptics. These include nalidixic acid and chitofurans. Widely used drugs such as kanefron and other plant origin. Usually treatment takes about two months.
There are several forms of acute pyelonephritis.
- The first - the sharpest form, accompanied by a serious condition of the patient, signs of sepsis, with frequent chills and severe weakness.
- The second form is acute with local symptoms, slight intoxication and insignificant dehydration of the body.
- The third form of the disease is subacute, characterized by local signs of the disease and absence of general symptoms.
- The fourth form is latent. It does not pose a threat to the life of the patient, but frequent manifestations lead to changes in the tissues of the kidney - there is a wrinkling of the kidney.
Health of the body largely depends on lifestyle, nutrition and drinking regimen. Acute pyelonephritis may appear due to hypothermia, so in the cold season it is necessary to dress in the weather, not to drink cold drinks.
In a day, you need to consume up to 1.5-2 liters of fluid, then the risk of developing urolithiasis and pyelonephritis decreases. Preservation of vitamin balance will help strengthen the protective functions of the body. To improve the outflow of urine, it is advisable to drink broths of diuretic herbs. These include field horsetail, sporach, bearberry, St. John's wort, corn stigmas.
For buds are useful broths of dogrose, tincture of birch buds, birch sap. Do not recommend eating acute, smoked, sour dishes, as well as protein foods( meat) in large quantities.
Be attentive to your health, but do not worry if something bothers you. Time taken preventive measures and treatment will save you from unnecessary diseases!
This will relieve the running prostatitis for 10 days. I managed! That's it. ..
Nail fungus is afraid of this as a fire! If in the cool water. ..
I weighed 92 kg! Fat went 3 kg a week! For this, I drank a glass before going to bed. ..
The "grandfather's" method of quitting smoking! In 7 days you will forget about cigarettes forever!